how to generate qr code in using c# Projects and Solutions in Visual C#

Print QR-Code in Visual C# Projects and Solutions

Projects and Solutions
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It s rare for a useful program to be so simple that you would want all of its source code in one file. You may occasionally stumble across horrors such as a single file containing tens of thousands of lines of code, but in the interest of quality (and sanity) it s best to try to keep your source code in smaller, more manageable chunks the larger and more complex anything gets the more likely it is to contain flaws. So Visual Studio is built to work with multiple source files, and it provides a couple of concepts for structuring your programs across those files: projects and solutions. A project is a collection of source files that the C# compiler combines to produce a single output typically either an executable program or a library. (See the sidebar on the next page for more details on the compilation process.) The usual convention in Windows is that executable files have an .exe extension while libraries have a .dll extension. (These extensions are short for executable and dynamic link library, respectively.) There isn t a big difference between the two kinds of file; the main distinction is that an executable program is required to have an entry point the Main function. A library is not something you d run independently; it s designed to be used by other programs, so a DLL doesn t have its own entry point. Other than that, they re pretty much the same thing they re just files that contain code and data. (The two types of file are so similar that you can use an executable as though it were a library.) So Visual Studio projects work in much the same way for programs and libraries.
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The .exe and .dll files produced by Visual Studio do not contain your source code. If you were to look at the HelloWorld.exe file produced by our example, it would not contain a copy of the text in the Program.cs file. C# is a compiled language, meaning that during the development process, the source is converted into a binary format that is easier for the computer to execute. Visual Studio compiled your code automatically when you ran the program earlier. Not all languages work this way. For example, JavaScript, a language used to add dynamic behavior to web pages, does not need to be compiled your web browser downloads the source for any JavaScript required and runs it directly. But there are a few disadvantages with this. First, source code tends to be rather verbose it s important that source code be meaningful to humans as well as computers, because when we come to modify a program, we need to understand the code before changing it. But a computer can work with very dense binary representations of information, which makes it possible for compiled code to be much smaller than the source, thus taking up less space on disk and taking less time to download. Second, human-readable representations are relatively hard work for computers to process computers are more at home with binary than with text. Compilation provides the opportunity to convert all the human-readable text into a form more convenient for the computer in advance. So compiled code tends to run faster than a system that works directly with the source. (In fact, although JavaScript was not designed to be compiled, modern JavaScript engines have taken to compiling script after downloading it to speed things up. This still leaves it at a disadvantage to a language such as C# where compilation happens during development when a script runs for the first time with such a system, the user of the web page has to wait while the script is downloaded and compiled.) Some languages compile code into native machine language the binary code that can be executed directly by a computer s CPU. This offers a performance benefit: code compiled in this way doesn t require any further processing to run. However, .NET languages don t do this, because it limits where a compiled program can execute. As we mentioned in the first chapter, .NET languages compile into a so-called Intermediate Language (IL for short). This is a binary representation, so it s compact and efficient for computers to process, but it s not specific to any particular CPU type, enabling .NET programs to run on either 32-bit or 64-bit machines, or on different CPU architectures. The .NET Framework converts this IL into native machine language just before running it, a technique referred to as JIT (Just In Time) compilation. JIT compilation offers the best of both worlds: it s much faster than compiling from the source, but it still retains the flexibility to target different machine types.
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Some project types produce neither libraries nor executables. For example, there s a project type for building .msi (Windows Installer) files from the outputs of other projects. So strictly speaking, a project is a fairly abstract idea: it takes some files and builds them into some kind of output. But projects containing C# code will produce either an EXE or a DLL.
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A solution is just a collection of related projects. If you are writing a library, you ll probably want to write an application that uses it even if the library is ultimately destined to be used by other people, you ll still want to be able to try it out for testing and debugging purposes, so it s useful to be able to have one or more applications that exercise the library s functionality. By putting all of these projects into one solution, you can work with the DLL and its test applications all at once. By the way, Visual Studio always requires a solution even if you re building just one project, it is always contained in a solution. That s why the project s contents are shown in a panel called the Solution Explorer, shown in Figure 2-3.
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The Solution Explorer is usually visible on the righthand side of Visual Studio, but if you don t see it you can open it with the View Solution Explorer menu item. It shows all the projects in the solution just the HelloWorld project in this example. And it shows all the files in the solution you can see the Program.cs file we ve been examining near the bottom of Figure 2-3. Farther up is an extra file we haven t looked at, called AssemblyInfo.cs. If you open this you ll see that Visual Studio puts version number and copyright information in that file users will see this information if they view the compiled output s properties in Windows Explorer.
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You might find that on your system, the Solution Explorer doesn t show the Solution node that s visible at the top of Figure 2-3, and just shows the HelloWorld project. Visual Studio can be configured to hide the solution when it contains just a single project. If you don t see the solution and would like to, select the Tools Options menu item, and in the Options dialog that opens select the Projects and Solutions item. One of the options will be the Always show solution checkbox check this if you want to see the solution in the Solution Explorer even when you ve got only one project.
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Besides the C# source files, the Solution Explorer as shown in Figure 2-3 also has a References section. This contains a list of all the libraries your project uses. By default, Visual Studio populates this with a list of DLLs from the .NET Framework class library that it thinks you might find useful. You might be experiencing d j vu right now didn t we already tell the compiler which bits of the library we want with using directives This is a common cause of confusion among developers learning C#. Namespaces are not libraries, and neither one is contained by the other. These facts are obscured by an apparent connection. For example, the System.Data library does in fact define a load of types in the System.Data namespace. But this is just a convention, and one that is only loosely followed. Libraries are often, but not always, named after the namespace with which they are most strongly associated, but it s common for a library to define types in several different namespaces and it s common for a namespace s types to be distributed across several different libraries. (If you re wondering how this chaos emerged, see the sidebar below.)
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