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CHAPTER 4 CLASSES: THE BASICS
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The following code creates two instances and stores their references in variables named T1 and T2. Figure 4-8 illustrates T1 and T2 in memory. The code demonstrates the following three actions discussed so far in the use of a class: Declaring a class Creating instances of the class Accessing the class members (i.e., writing to a field and reading from a field) class DaysTemp { public int High, Low; public int Avg() { return (High + Low) / 2; } } class Class1 { static void Main() { DaysTemp T1 = new DaysTemp(); // Create 2 instances of DaysTemp. DaysTemp T2 = new DaysTemp(); // Write to the fields of each instance. T1.High = 76; T1.Low = 57; T2.High = 75; T2.Low = 53; // Read from the fields of each instance and call a method of // each instance. Console.WriteLine("T1: {0}, {1}, {2}", T1.High, T1.Low, T1.Avg ()); Console.WriteLine("T2: {0}, {1}, {2}", T2.High, T2.Low, T2.Avg ()); Field Field Method // Declare the class. // Declare the instance fields. // Declare the instance method.
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CHAPTER 4 CLASSES: THE BASICS
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This code produces the following output: T1: 76, 57, 66 T2: 75, 53, 64
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Figure 4-8. Memory layout of instances T1 and T2
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Methods
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The Structure of a Method Local Variables Method Invocations Return Values Parameters Value Parameters Reference Parameters Output Parameters Parameter Arrays Summary of Parameter Types Stack Frames Recursion Method Overloading
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CHAPTER 5 METHODS
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The Structure of a Method
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Essentially, a method is a block of code with a name. You can execute the code by using the method s name. You can pass data into a method and receive data as output. As you saw in the previous chapter, a method is a function member of a class. Methods have two major sections, as shown in Figure 5-1 the method header and the method body: The method header specifies the method s characteristics, including the following: Whether the method returns data The name of the method What types of input can be passed to the method The method body contains the sequence of executable code statements. Execution starts at the first statement in the method body and continues sequentially through the method.
Figure 5-1. The structure of a method The following example shows the form of the method header. I will cover each part in the following pages. int MyMethod ( int intpar1, string strpar1 ) Return Method Parameter type name list
CHAPTER 5 METHODS
Methods can also be function members of another user-defined type called a struct, which is covered in 12. Most of what this chapter covers about class methods will also be true for struct methods. For example, the following code shows a simple method called MyMethod, that, in turn, calls the WriteLine method several times: void MyMethod() { Console.WriteLine("First"); Console.WriteLine("Last"); }
Code Execution in the Method Body
The method body is a block, which (as you will recall from 2) is a sequence of statements between curly braces. A block generally contains the following: Local variables Flow-of-control constructs Method invocations Blocks nested within it Figure 5-2 shows an example of a method body and some of its components.
Figure 5-2. Method body example
CHAPTER 5 METHODS
Local Variables
Like fields, local variables store data. While fields usually store data about the state of the object, local variables are usually created to store data for local, or transitory, computations. Table 5-1 compares and contrasts local variables and instance fields. The following line of code shows the syntax of local variable declarations. The optional initializer consists of the equals sign followed by a value to be used to initialize the variable. Variable name Type Identifier = Value; Optional initializer The existence of a local variable is limited to the block in which it is created. It comes into existence at the point at which it is declared. It goes out of existence when the block completes execution. You can declare local variables at any position in the method body. The following example shows the declaration and use of three local variables of type int. static void Main( ) { int FirstInt = 15; int SecondInt = 13; int Total = FirstInt + SecondInt; ... }
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