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CHAPTER 8 EXPRESSIONS AND OPERATORS
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For example, the following code reiterates and uses the two type conversion operators defined previously. In Main, an int literal is converted into a LimitedInt object, and in the next line, a LimitedInt object is converted into an int. class LimitedInt { const int MaxValue = 100; const int MinValue = 0; public static implicit operator int(LimitedInt li) { return li.TheValue; } public static implicit operator LimitedInt(int x) { LimitedInt li = new LimitedInt(); li.TheValue = x; return li; } private int _TheValue = 0; public int TheValue { get { return _TheValue; } set { if (value < MinValue) _TheValue = 0; else _TheValue = value > MaxValue MaxValue : value; } } } class Program { static void Main() { LimitedInt li = 5; int Five = li; // Convert type
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// Convert type
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// Main // Convert 5 to LimitedInt // Convert LimitedInt to int
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Console.WriteLine("li: {0}, Five: {1}", li.TheValue, Five); } }
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CHAPTER 8 EXPRESSIONS AND OPERATORS
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Explicit Conversion and the Cast Operator
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The preceding example code showed the implicit conversion of the int to a LimitedInt type and the implicit conversion of a LimitedInt type to an int. If, however, you had declared the two conversion operators as explicit, you would have had to explicitly use cast operators when making the conversions. A cast operator consists of the name of the type to which you want to convert the expression, inside a set of parentheses. For example, the following casts the value 5 to a LimitedInt object. Cast operator LimitedInt li = (LimitedInt) 5; For example, here is the relevant portion of the code, with the changes marked: public static explicit operator int(LimitedInt li) { return li.TheValue; } public static explicit operator LimitedInt(int x) { LimitedInt li = new LimitedInt(); li.TheValue = x; return li; } static void Main() { LimitedInt li = (LimitedInt) 5; int Five = (int) li; Console.WriteLine(" li: {0}, Five: {1}", li.TheValue, Five); } In both versions of the code, the output is the following:
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li: 5, Five: 5
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CHAPTER 8 EXPRESSIONS AND OPERATORS
Operator Overloading
The C# operators, as you ve seen, are defined to work using the predefined types as operands. If confronted with a user-defined type, the operator simply would not know how to process it. Operator overloading allows you to define how the C# operators should operate on operands of your user-defined types. Operator overloading is only available for classes and structs. You can overload an operator x for use with your class or struct by declaring a method named operator x that implements the behavior (e.g., operator +, operator -, etc.). The overload methods for unary operators take a single parameter of the class or struct type. The overload methods for binary operators take two parameters, at least one of which must be of the class or struct type. public static LimitedInt operator -(LimitedInt x) public static LimitedInt operator +(LimitedInt x, double y) An operator overload method must be declared as Both static and public A member of the class or struct for which it is an operand For example, the following code shows two of the overloaded operators of a class named LimitedInt: the addition operator and the negation operator. You can tell that it is negation and not subtraction because the operator overload method has only a single parameter, and is therefore unary; whereas the subtraction operator is binary. class LimitedInt Return { Required type Keyword Operator public static LimitedInt operator +(LimitedInt x, double y) { LimitedInt li = new LimitedInt(); li.TheValue = x.TheValue + (int)y; return li; } public static LimitedInt operator -(LimitedInt x) { // In this strange class, negating a value just sets its value to 0. LimitedInt li = new LimitedInt(); li.TheValue = 0; return li; } // Unary // Binary
CHAPTER 8 EXPRESSIONS AND OPERATORS
Restrictions on Operator Overloading
Not all operators can be overloaded, and there are restrictions on the types of overloading that can be done. The important things you should know about the restrictions on operator overloading are described later in the section. Only the following operators can be overloaded. Prominently missing from the list is the assignment operator. Overloadable unary operators: + Overloadable binary operators: + < >= <= ! * ~ / ++ % & -| true ^ << false >> == != >
The increment and decrement operators are overloadable. But unlike the predefined versions, there is no distinction between the pre- and post- usage of the overloaded operator. You cannot do the following things with operator overloading: Create a new operator Change the syntax of an operator Redefine how an operator works on the predefined types Change the precedence or associativity of an operator
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