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CHAPTER 17 INTERFACES
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interface IIfc1 { void PrintOut(string s); } interface IIfc2 { void PrintOut(string s); } class MyClass : IIfc1, IIfc2 { public void PrintOut(string s) { Console.WriteLine("Calling through: } } class Program { static void Main() { MyClass mc = new MyClass(); IIfc1 ifc1 = (IIfc1) mc; IIfc2 ifc2 = (IIfc2) mc; mc.PrintOut("object."); ifc1.PrintOut("interface 1."); ifc2.PrintOut("interface 2."); } } This code produces the following output: Calling through: Calling through: Calling through: object. interface 1. interface 2.
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// Declare interface // Declare interface // Declare class
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{0}", s);
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// Get ref to IIfc1 // Get ref to IIfc2 // Call through class object // Call through IIfc1 // Call through IIfc2
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Figure 17-6 illustrates the class object with references to the class object, to IIfc1, and to IIfc2.
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Figure 17-6. Separate references to different interfaces in the class
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CHAPTER 17 INTERFACES
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An Inherited Member As an Implementation
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A class implementing an interface can inherit the code for an implementation from one of its base classes. For example, the following code illustrates a class inheriting implementation code from a base class. IIfc1 is an interface with a method member called PrintOut. MyBaseClass contains a method called PrintOut that matches IIfc1 s method. Class Derived has an empty declaration body, but derives from class MyBaseClass and contains IIfc1 in its base class list. Even though Derived s declaration body is empty, the code in the base class satisfies the requirement to implement the interface. interface IIfc1 { void PrintOut(string s); } class MyBaseClass { public void PrintOut(string s) { Console.WriteLine("Calling through: } } class Derived : MyBaseClass, IIfc1 { } // Declare base class // Declare the method. {0}", s);
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// Declare class
CHAPTER 17 INTERFACES
class Program { static void Main() { Derived d = new Derived(); d.PrintOut("object."); } }
// Create class object // Call method
Figure 17-7 illustrates the preceding code. Notice that the arrow from IIfc1 goes down to the code in the base class.
Figure 17-7. Implementation in the base class
CHAPTER 17 INTERFACES
Explicit Interface Member Implementations
You saw in a previous section that you can use a single class implementation to implement multiple interfaces. This was illustrated in Figures 17-5 and 17-6. But what if you want separate implementations for each interface In this case, you can create what are called explicit interface member implementations. An explicit interface member implementation has the following characteristics: Like all interface implementations, it is placed in the class or struct implementing the interface. It is declared using a qualified interface name, which consists of the interface name and member name, separated by a dot. For example, the following code shows the syntax for declaring explicit interface member implementations. Each of the two interfaces implemented by MyClass implements its own version of method PrintOut. class MyClass : IIfc1, IIfc2 { Qualified interface name void IIfc1.PrintOut (string s) { ... } void IIfc2.PrintOut (string s) { ... } } Figure 17-8 illustrates the class and interfaces. Notice that the boxes representing the explicit interface member implementations are not shown in gray, since they now represent actual code.
// Explicit implementation
// Explicit implementation
Figure 17-8. Explicit interface member implementations
CHAPTER 17 INTERFACES
For example, in the following code, class MyClass declares explicit interface member implementations for the members of the two interfaces. Notice that in this example there are only explicit interface member implementations. There is no class-level implementation. interface IIfc1 { void PrintOut(string s); } interface IIfc2 { void PrintOut(string t); } class MyClass : IIfc1, IIfc2 { Qualified interface name void IIfc1.PrintOut(string s) { Console.WriteLine("IIfc1: {0}", s); } Qualified interface name void IIfc2.PrintOut(string s) { Console.WriteLine("IIfc2: {0}", s); } } class Program { static void Main() { MyClass mc = new MyClass(); IIfc1 ifc1 = (IIfc1) mc; ifc1.PrintOut("interface 1."); IIfc2 ifc2 = (IIfc2) mc; ifc2.PrintOut("interface 2."); } } This code produces the following output: IIfc1: IIfc2: interface 1. interface 2. // Declare interface // Declare interface
// Explicit interface member // Implementation
// Explicit interface member // Implementation
// Create class object // Get reference to IIfc1 // Call explicit implementation // Get reference to IIfc2 // Call explicit implementation
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