c# create data matrix Figure 18-9. The implicit numeric conversions in Visual C#.NET

Maker DataMatrix in Visual C#.NET Figure 18-9. The implicit numeric conversions

Figure 18-9. The implicit numeric conversions
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CHAPTER 18 CONVERSIONS
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Overflow Checking Context
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You ve seen that explicit conversions have the possibility of losing data and not being able to represent the source value equivalently in the target type. C# provides you with the ability to choose whether the runtime should check the result for overflow when making these types of conversions. It does this through the checked operator and statement. Whether a segment of code is checked or not is called its overflow checking context. If you designate an expression or segment of code as checked, the CLR will raise an OverflowException exception if the conversion produces an overflow. If the code is not checked, the conversion will proceed regardless of whether there is an overflow. The default overflow checking context is not checked.
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The checked and unchecked Operators
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The checked and unchecked operators control the overflow checking context of an expression, which is placed between a set of parentheses. The syntax is the following: checked ( Expression ) unchecked ( Expression ) For example, the following code executes the same conversion first in a checked operator and then in an unchecked operator. In the unchecked context, the overflow is ignored, resulting in the value 208. In the checked context, an OverflowException exception is raised. ushort sh = 2000; byte sb; sb = unchecked ( (byte) sh ); Console.WriteLine("sb: {0}", sb); sb = checked ( (byte) sh ); Console.WriteLine("sb: {0}", sb); // Most significant bits lost // OverflowException raised
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CHAPTER 18 CONVERSIONS
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This code produces the following output: sb: 208 Unhandled Exception: System.OverflowException: Arithmetic operation resulted in an overflow. at Test1.Test.Main() in C:\Programs\Test1\Program.cs:line 21
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The checked and unchecked operators, which you just looked at in the previous section, act on the single expression between the parentheses. The checked and unchecked statements perform the same function, but control all the conversions in a block of code, rather than in a single expression. The checked and unchecked statements can be nested to any level. For example, the following code uses checked and unchecked statements, and produces the same results as the previous example, which uses checked and unchecked expressions. In this case, however, blocks of code are affected, rather than just expressions. byte sb; ushort sh = 2000; unchecked { sb = (byte) sh; Console.WriteLine("sb: {0}", sb); checked { sb = (byte) sh; Console.WriteLine("sb: {0}", sh); } } // Set unchecked
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// Set checked
CHAPTER 18 CONVERSIONS
Explicit Numeric Conversions
You ve seen that the implicit conversions automatically convert from the source expression to the target type because there is no possible loss of data. With the explicit conversions, however, there is the possibility of losing data so it is important for you as the programmer to know how a conversion will handle that loss if it occurs. In this section, you will look at each of the various types of explicit numeric conversions. Figure 18-10 shows the subset of explicit conversions shown in Figure 18-8.
Figure 18-10. The explicit numeric conversions
Integral to Integral
Figure 18-11 shows the behavior of the integral-to-integral explicit conversions. In the checked case, if the conversion loses data, the operation raises an OverflowException exception. In the unchecked case, any lost bits go unreported.
Figure 18-11. Integer type to integer type explicit conversions
CHAPTER 18 CONVERSIONS
float or double to Integral
When converting a floating point type to an integer type, the value is rounded toward zero to the nearest integer. Figure 18-12 illustrates the conversion conditions. If the rounded value is not within the range of the target type, then The CLR raises an OverflowException exception if the overflow checking context is checked. C# does not define what its value should be if the context is unchecked.
Figure 18-12. Converting a float or a double to an integral type
decimal to Integral
When converting from decimal to the integer types, the CLR raises an OverflowException exception if the resulting value is not within the target type s range. Figure 18-13 illustrates the conversion conditions.
Figure 18-13. Converting a decimal to an integral
CHAPTER 18 CONVERSIONS
double to float
Values of type float occupy 32 bits, and values of type double occupy 64 bits. The double type value is rounded to the nearest float type value. Figure 18-14 illustrates the conversion conditions. If the value is too small to be represented by a float, the value is set to either positive or negative 0. If the value is too large to be represented by a float, the value is set to either positive or negative infinity.
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