INTRODUCTION TO CLIENT/SERVER NETWORKING in Font

Printer QR-Code in Font INTRODUCTION TO CLIENT/SERVER NETWORKING

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CLIENT/SERVER NETWORKING
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Learning More About IP
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In the next chapters, we will step up to the protocol layers above IP and see how your Python programs can have different kinds of network conversations by using the different services built on top of the Internet Protocol. But, what if you have been intrigued by the preceding outline of how IP works, and want to learn more The official resources that describe the Internet Protocol are the Requests for Comment (RFCs) published by the IETF that describe exactly how the protocol works. They are carefully written and, when combined with a strong cup of coffee and a few hours of free reading time, will let you in on every single detail of how the Internet Protocols operate. Here, for example, is the RFC that defines the Internet Protocol itself: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc791 You can also find RFCs referenced on general resources like Wikipedia, and RFCs will often cite other RFCs that describe further details of a protocol or addressing scheme. If you want to learn everything about the Internet Protocol and the other protocols that run on top of it, you might be interested in acquiring the venerable text TCP/IP Illustrated, Vol. 1: The Protocols, by W. Richard Stevens. It covers, in very fine detail, all of the protocol operations at which this book will only have the space to gesture. There are also other good books on networking in general, and that might help with network configuration in particular if setting up IP networks and routing is something you do either at work or even just at home to get your computers on the Internet.
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CHAPTER 2
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The previous chapter asserted that all network communications these days are built atop the transmission of short messages called packets that are usually no longer than a few thousand bytes. Packets each wing their way across the network independently, free to take different paths toward the same destination if redundant or load-balanced routers are part of the network. This means that packets can arrive out of order. If network conditions are poor, or a packet is simply unlucky, then it might easily not arrive at all. When a network application is built on top of IP, its designers face a fundamental question: will the network conversations in which the application will engage best be constructed from individual, unordered, and unreliable network packages Or will their application be simpler and easier to write if the network instead appears to offer an ordered and reliable stream of bytes, so that their clients and servers can converse as though talking to a local pipe There are three possible approaches to building atop IP. Here they are, in order of decreasing popularity! The vast majority of applications today are built atop TCP, the Transmission Control Protocol, which offers ordered and reliable data streams between IP applications. We will explore its possibilities in 3. A few protocols, usually with short, self-contained requests and responses, and simple clients that will not be annoyed if a request gets lost and they have to repeat it, choose UDP, the User Datagram Protocol, described in this chapter. Very specialized protocols avoid both of these options, and choose to create an entirely new IP-based protocol that sits alongside TCP and UDP as an entirely new way of having conversations across an IP network.
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The last of these three options is very rare. Normal operating system users are usually not even allowed to communicate on the network without going through TCP or UDP, which is how UDP gets its name: it is the way that normal Users, as opposed to operating system administrators, can send packet-based messages. While writing raw network packets is useful for network discovery programs like ping and nmap, this is a very specialized use case, and this book will not discuss how to build and transmit raw packets using Python. If you need this capability, find some example C code for constructing the packets that you need to forge, and try making the same low-level calls to socket() from Python. So that leaves us with the normal, user-accessible IP protocols, TCP and UDP. We are covering UDP first in this book because even though it is used far less often than TCP, its simplicity will give us a window onto how network packets actually behave, which will be helpful when we then examine how TCP works. Another reason for making UDP the subject of this second chapter is that while it can be more complicated to use than TCP after all, it does so little for you, and you have to remember to watch for dropped or re-ordered packets yourself its programming interface is correspondingly simpler, and will
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