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CHAPTER 12 s SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY
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In August 1999, five finalists were chosen. A proposal called Rijndael, made by two Belgian cryptographers, was chosen to be the AES standard. Rijndael supports key and block sizes of 128, 192, and 256 bits, which is considerably larger than what DES offers. As a result, in applications that need symmetric block encryption, AES achieves better performance and uses less memory than DES or Triple DES. Due to the nature of the selection process that AES went through, the hope is that AES is also more secure than DES. In fact, one of the reasons that Rijndael was chosen is because its mathematical properties were more easily analyzable and provable than other ciphers that were proposed.
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12.1.4. Security by Obscurity: Recap
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In this subsection, we review some relevant points originally made in 2 regarding security by obscurity. Note that the design of the DES and Triple DES algorithms are completely public. They are specified in FIPS 46-3. Their security, however, is not dependent upon the secrecy of the algorithm it is dependent upon the keys provided as input to the algorithm. If an attacker determines a key, you can simply change it to thwart further eavesdropping or attack. Unless there is some mathematical property of the algorithms that the attacker can exploit, her only option is brute-force search for the correct key. Moreover, every additional bit used in the key doubles the number of keys that the attacker needs to try to find the correct one. Therefore, if you use a long enough key, it would take the attacker too much time to attack the algorithm via brute-force search. The attacker s best option may be to attack the algorithm based on its mathematical properties. The hope, however, is that it is very hard to defeat the mathematical properties of the algorithm. Cryptographers have put much effort into the design of encryption algorithms such as Triple DES and AES. You probably should not try to invent your own encryption algorithm with the hopes of doing better. At the same time, we do not discourage innovation. If you have an idea about how to do encryption better, have read cryptography literature, and have designed your own encryption algorithm, you should share that algorithm with other cryptographers and give them the opportunity to crack it before considering using it in a real system that users depend on. Make your algorithm public, just as other cryptographers have, to ensure that the security of the algorithm you are developing is not based on its obscurity.
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12.1.5. Encrypting More Data
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The ciphers covered thus far in this chapter are called block ciphers because they take input blocks of 64, 128, 192, or 256 bits at a time. However, we have not talked about how to encrypt more data than a couple hundred bits at a time. For example, suppose we have a 1-MB document of plaintext that we would like to encrypt with a 64-bit key using DES (1 MB is 16,384 64-bit blocks). We could take each of these 64-bit blocks of plaintext input and independently run each of them through DES to produce 16,384 64-bit blocks of ciphertext. This technique is called Electronic Code Book (ECB) mode encryption. It is conceptually equivalent to looking up each 64-bit plaintext block in a large electronic code book to determine what the corresponding ciphertext block should be. The problem with ECB is that it is likely that some of the 64-bit plaintext blocks are repeated many times in the 1-MB document. For instance, if the document is made up of text, and the word security appears frequently in the document aligned on 64-bit boundaries, then the ciphertext corresponding to security will appear in the encrypted document just as frequently. ECB leaks information about the structure of the document to the attacker.
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