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We are going to spend the rest of this chapter illustrating seven key technological security goals (authentication, authorization, confidentiality, message/data integrity, accountability, availability, and non-repudiation). We will do so with the help of a few fictitious characters that are often used in the field of computer security. The first two fictitious characters are Alice and Bob, who are both good guys trying to get some useful work done. Their work may often involve the exchange of secret information. Alice and Bob unfortunately have some adversaries that are working against them namely Eve and Mallory. Another person that we will occasionally use in our examples is a gentleman by the name of Trent. Trent is a trusted third party. In particular, Trent is trusted by Alice and Bob. Alice and Bob can rely on Trent to help them get some of their work accomplished. We will provide more details about Alice, Bob, Eve, Mallory, and Trent as necessary, and we encourage you to learn more about them by reading The Story of Alice and Bob (Gordon 1984).
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1.2. Authentication
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Authentication is the act of verifying someone s identity. When exploring authentication with our fictitious characters Alice and Bob, the question we want to ask is: if Bob wants to communicate with Alice, how can he be sure that he is communicating with Alice and not someone trying to impersonate her Bob may be able to authenticate and verify Alice s identity based on one or more of three types of methods: something you know, something you have, and something you are.
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1.2.1. Something You Know
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The first general method Bob can use to authenticate Alice is to ask her for some secret only she should know, such as a password. If Alice produces the right password, then Bob can
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CHAPTER 1 s SECURITY GOALS
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assume he is communicating with Alice. Passwords are so prevalently used that we dedicate 9 to studying how to properly build a password management system. There are advantages and disadvantages to using passwords. One advantage is that password schemes are simple to implement compared to other authentication mechanisms, such as biometrics, which we will discuss later in this chapter. Another advantage of password security systems is that they are simple for users to understand. There are, however, disadvantages to using password security systems. First, most users do not choose strong passwords, which are hard for attackers to guess. Users usually choose passwords that are simple concatenations of common names, common dictionary words, common street names, or other easy-to-guess terms or phrases. Attackers interested in hacking into somebody s account can use password-cracking programs to try many common login names and concatenations of common words as passwords. Such password cracking programs can easily determine 10 to 20 percent of the usernames and passwords in a system. Of course, to gain access to a system, an attacker typically needs only one valid username and password. Passwords are relatively easy to crack, unless users are somehow forced to choose passwords that are hard for such password-cracking programs to guess. A second disadvantage of password security systems is that a user needs to reuse a password each time she logs into a system that gives an attacker numerous opportunities to listen in (see Section 1.4) on that password. If the attacker can successfully listen in on a password just once, the attacker can then log in as the user. A one-time password (OTP) system, which forces the user to enter a new password each time she logs in, eliminates the risks of using a password multiple times. With this system, the user is given a list of passwords the first time she logs in, she is asked for the first password; the second time she logs in, she is asked the second password; and so on. The major problem with this system is that no user will be able to remember all these passwords. However, a device could be used that keeps track of all the different passwords the user would need to use each time she logs in. This basic idea of such a device naturally leads us from the topic of something you know to the topic of something you have.
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