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10.3.2. Validation via User-Provided Secret
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A simple and reliable option for preventing XSRF is to require the user to enter a secret only known to her, such as her login password, along with the request that results in a server-side state change or transaction. For example, the HTML form in Section 10.2.1 that allows users to change their password could have an additional input field, curr_password, requiring the user to enter her current
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8. Doing so would involve some trickery with browser plug-ins, proxies, or command-line HTTP clients, but is certainly possible.
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CHAPTER 10 s CROSS-DOMAIN SECURITY IN WEB APPLICATIONS
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password. When the resulting POST request is received, the update_profile script would first check that the value of curr_password indeed matches the user s current password, and otherwise reject processing of the request. This approach is effective since we can assume that the attacker who serves up the malicious page on hackerhome.org does not know the user s current password after all, if he did, he would not bother with this attack. The disadvantage of this approach is that it requires additional work for our user, who needs to type in her password. It is therefore not practical in most cases to use this approach for all state-changing requests across an entire web application users would quickly get frustrated if they had to provide in their password many times over while using our application. However, it is appropriate to use this approach for infrequent, high-value transactions, such as password or other profile changes and perhaps commercial/financial transactions over a certain value.
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10.3.3. Validation via Action Token
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To secure an entire application against XSRF attacks without requiring the user to explicitly enter a secret, we need to find an alternative approach. What we need to accomplish is in essence to allow our application to determine whether an HTTP request resulted from the POST of an HTML form that our application itself had earlier sent to our user s browser, or whether the form was one that may have been included in a document sent to the browser by a third party. We will attempt to distinguish genuine instances of forms that our application has produced from ones that were forged by a third party based on a token included in a hidden form field (or URL query parameter, if we must use GET requests). Due to the browser s same-origin policy, a malicious page from a third-party site such as www.hackerhome.org cannot inspect pages loaded into the browser from our site, www.mywwwservice.com. In particular, the page from www.hackerhome.org would not be able to obtain the correct value for the token by inspecting our application's page that contains the form in question. If we are able to devise a scheme for generating and validating these tokens such that a malicious third party cannot guess or otherwise obtain a valid token value, we can indeed use the token to distinguish forged from genuine requests. Since the token is used to control the execution of state changes or transactions, we refer to it as an action token. How can we generate and validate such tokens We first consider a scheme (which will turn out to be insufficient) in which tokens are generated using a cryptographic algorithm such that possession of a secret is necessary to produce a token that our application will consider valid. One way of generating tokens with this property is to concatenate the value of a timestamp or counter c with the message authentication code (MAC) of the counter under a secret key KMAC (MACs were introduced in Section 1.5, and are covered in more detail in 15):
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Here, + denotes string concatenation.9 To validate a token value arriving with an inbound request, we split the token into the MAC and counter-component (we assume that MACs are
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9. In practice, we would apply a transport encoding, such as hex encoding or base64 encoding, to either the token or its constituent parts.
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