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Making dependencies explicit
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There are only three real lines of code in the RedirectController. Controllers should all be thin, and this is a good example. Only logic related to presenting information to the user belongs in the controller. In this case, the user experiences a redirect; the logic for finding the correct Conference object is a data access issue and doesn t belong in the controller, so it s factored into a repository object. The controller demonstrates proper separation of concerns, and it s easily unit tested because it s only involved with a single responsibility. We re able to simulate dependencies using test doubles. In figure 4.5, you see the unit test passing because we were able to properly simulate this controller s dependencies and verify that, given the dependencies, the controller will do its job correctly.
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A controller unit testing passing
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Using test doubles, such as stubs and mocks
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As far as the controller is concerned, its caller is passing in an implementation of the necessary interface. This interface is a dependency, and the controller makes use of it in an action method. How the dependency is passed in and what class implements the interface are irrelevant. At runtime, a production class will be passed into the controller, but during unit testing, we use stand-in objects, or test doubles, to simulate the behavior of the dependencies. There are different types of simulated objects, and some of the definitions overlap. In short, the terms fake and test double are generic terms for a nonproduction implementation of an interface or derived class that stands in for the real thing. Stubs are classes that return hard-coded information when they re called. The ConferenceRepositoryStub shown in listing 4.7 is an example of a stub. A mock is a recorder that remembers arguments passed to it and other details (depending on how it s programmed) so that we can assert the behavior of the caller later on.
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Entire books have been written about testing and how to separate code for testing using fakes, stubs, and mocks. If you re interested in exploring the subject further, we highly recommend reading Michael Feathers book, Working Effectively with Legacy Code.
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One downside to using hand-coded stubs and mocks is that you need to write many lines of code to satisfy an interface implementation that may have six methods. This isn t the only option, however. A favorite library for automating the creation of mocks and stubs is Rhino Mocks written by Oren Eini (www.ayende.com/projects/rhino-mocks.aspx). Rhino Mocks drastically reduces the number of lines of code in a unit-test fixture by streamlining the creation of test doubles. If code is designed so that all dependencies are injected into the constructor, as shown in listing 4.8, unit testing becomes easy and soon becomes a repetitive pattern of faking dependencies and writing assertions. Over time, if you employ this technique, you ll see a marked improvement in the quality of your code.
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Listing 4.8 Dependency defined in the constructor
public RedirectController(IConferenceRepository conferenceRepository) { _repository = conferenceRepository; }
Remember how many lines of code we wrote for a stubbed implementation of IConferenceRepository in listing 4.7 Now, examine listing 4.9 and notice how short this code listing is in comparison.
Listing 4.9 Using Rhino Mocks to streamline code for fakes
using using using using using using System.Web.Mvc; CodeCampServer.Core.Domain; CodeCampServer.Core.Domain.Model; NUnit.Framework; NUnit.Framework.SyntaxHelpers; Rhino.Mocks;
namespace MvcInAction.Controllers.UnitTests { [TestFixture] public class RedirectControllerTesterWithRhino { [Test] public void ShouldRedirectToTheNextConference() { var conferenceToFind = new Conference { Key = "thekey", Name = "name" };
Stubs using Rhino Mocks
var repository = MockRepository.GenerateStub<IConferenceRepository>();
Controller basics Returns specific conference
repository.Stub(r => r.GetNextConference()).Return(conferenceToFind);
var controller = new RedirectController(repository); RedirectToRouteResult result = controller.NextConference(); Assert.That(result.RouteValues["controller"], Is.EqualTo("conference")); Assert.That(result.RouteValues["action"], Is.EqualTo("index")); Assert.That(result.RouteValues["conferenceKey"], Is.EqualTo("thekey")); } } }
Asserts correct results
Rhino Mocks supports setting up dynamic stubs as well as dynamic mocks. The lines with Stub(...) are used so that a stubbing method or property always returns a given object. By using the Rhino Mocks library, we can provide dependency simulations quickly for easy unit testing. A dynamic mocking library like Rhino Mocks isn t appropriate in every unit-testing scenario. The usage in listing 4.9 is the bread-and-butter scenario that reduces the amount of setup code inside unit tests. More complex needs can quickly stress the Rhino Mocks API and become hard to read. Although Rhino Mocks supports almost everything you could want to do, the readability of tests is important to maintain. When you need to assert method parameters of dependencies or do something special, don t be afraid to push Rhino Mocks to the side and leverage a concrete mock or stub to keep the test readable.
Elements of a good controller unit test This chapter specifically addresses writing unit tests for controller classes. We focus heavily on testing controller classes because test-driving the controllers ensures they re well designed. It s unlikely you ll end up with a bad design if you re practicing test-driven development. Poorly designed code tends to be untestable, so observable untestability is an objective gauge of poorly designed code.
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