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13.1 What are controller factories
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Controller factories are an important extension point in the ASP.NET MVC Framework. They allow you to take on the responsibility of creating controllers, which enables you to apply logic for every single controller in your application. You can
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use controller factories to apply a custom IActionInvoker instance to all your controllers, or perhaps to add custom logging. The most common case of a controller is to enable support for dependency injection tools.
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The Inversion of Control principle and dependency injection
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Normally when code executes other code, there s a linear flow of creation and execution. For instance, if I have a class that depends on another class, I will create that class with the new operator, and then execute the class by calling a method. If I used Inversion of Control (IoC), I d still call methods on the class, but I d require an instance of the class passed into my constructor. In this manner, I yield control of locating or creating my dependency to the calling code. Dependency injection (DI) is the act of injecting a dependency into a class that depends on it. Often used interchangeably, IoC and DI yield loosely coupled code and are often used with interfaces. With interfaces, classes declare dependencies as interfaces in the constructor arguments. Calling code then locates appropriate classes and passes them in when constructing the class. IoC containers come into play to assist with managing this technique when used through an application. There are plenty of IoC containers to choose from, but the favorites at this time seem to be StructureMap (http://structuremap.sourceforge.net), Ninject (http://ninject.org), and Castle Windsor (www.castleproject.org/container). Controllers can leverage dependency injection by declaring their dependencies as constructor parameters. This inverts the control so that the caller is responsible for supplying the dependencies of a class, rather than the class constructing concrete instances itself. It allows you to decouple controllers from concrete instances of its dependencies (such as a repository or service). It s quite liberating, not to mention that it helps facilitate decoupled unit testing. When we ask for dependencies in the constructor, we call it constructor injection. There s another technique called property injection, but it isn t as apparent that these dependencies are required for the object to do its job. IoC tools can usually do both, but constructor injection is preferred for required dependencies.
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If you were to define a constructor with a dependency, the framework (by default) would no longer be able to build up your controllers for you. If you try, you re likely to get an error like in figure 13.1. The reason for this error is that the DefaultControllerFactory uses Activator. CreateInstance to instantiate the controller and knows nothing about the controller s constructor arguments. To fix this, you ll need to create your own custom controller factory.
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Controller factories
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Trying to use constructor dependencies without replacing the controller factory
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13.2 Creating a custom controller factory
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To create a custom controller factory class, you simply derive from either IControllerFactory or the more friendly base class, DefaultControllerFactory. Listing 13.1 shows a sample controller factory class.
Listing 13.1 A custom controller factory
public class MyCustomControllerFactory : DefaultControllerFactory { protected override IController GetControllerInstance( RequestContext requestContext, Type controllerType) { /* implement controller creation logic */ } }
You could implement the IControllerFactory interface directly, but the DefaultControllerFactory has some logic for determining the controller s type based on the name. You simply override the GetControllerInstance method and plug in your behavior.
Enabling dependency injection in your controllers
Once you have a custom controller factory, it s easy to use. At application startup, in your Global.asax.cs file, you can register your implementation like this:
ControllerBuilder.Current.SetControllerFactory(new MyCustomControllerFactory());
The framework will now use your class to build all instances of controllers. We can use this feature to implement IoC support in our controllers, but perhaps you re wondering why this is even needed...
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