datamatrix.net c# example AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STL/CLR LIBRARY in Visual C#.NET

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CHAPTER 12 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STL/CLR LIBRARY
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The first issue is that the iterators you ve seen so far are all managed templates, and you know from 11 that you can t use managed templates across assembly boundaries. In 11, I mentioned that you had to create a generic interface and use the generic interface for any communication across assembly boundaries. The STL/CLR library provides generic container and iterator types that serve the purpose of providing a cross-assembly way to use the STL/CLR containers.
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Using the STL/CLR Generic Interfaces from Another C++/CLI Assembly
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First, consider a typical use of iterators. Recall that each STL/CLR container defines a typedef iterator that is a managed template, as in the following code, shown previously in Listing 12-9: // Iterate over the collection using STL/CLR iterators void PrintAll() { SpeciesMap1::iterator iter1; for (iter1 = speciesMap1->begin(); iter1 != speciesMap1->end(); ++iter1) { Console::WriteLine("{0} {1}", iter1->first->Name, iter1->second->Name); } } STL/CLR provides a parallel set of typedefs that differ only in that they are generics, not managed templates. So, you could rewrite the PrintAll method as shown in Listing 12-20. Listing 12-20. Using Generics to Use an STL/CLR Container Across Assembly Boundaries // Iterate over the collection using generic iterators void PrintAllGeneric() { // Declare a generic iterator for this collection SpeciesMap1::generic_iterator generic_iter1; // Get a generic version of the container using the generic_container typedef // and using the implicit conversion from the container to // the generic_container type SpeciesMap1::generic_container^ generic_container1 = speciesMap1; for (generic_iter1 = generic_container1->begin(); generic_iter1 != generic_container1->end(); ++generic_iter1) { SpeciesMap1::generic_value val = *generic_iter1; Console::WriteLine("{0} {1}", generic_iter1->first->Name, generic_iter1->second->Name); } }
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CHAPTER 12 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STL/CLR LIBRARY
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The code in Listing 12-20 uses the typedefs generic_container and generic_iterator. The generic_container typedef specifies a generic type that represents an STL/CLR container. Every STL/CLR container defines this typedef. The generic_iterator typedef is also defined by all STL/CLR containers and works just like the iterator typedef. The actual underlying type of generic_container depends on the specific container, but since the typedef is provided, the actual type is not needed in STL/CLR code. The types themselves are managed types that you can find in the internal assembly Microsoft.VisualC.StlClr.dll. The way to use the generic type definitions across assembly boundaries is to Use the generic type definitions to expose iterators and containers in public methods of a public managed type. Use #include to reference the appropriate STL/CLR header in both assemblies. Use #using in the other assembly to reference the type that exposes the generic type definitions. Use generic typedefs for any cross-assembly calls. Use managed templates for calls internal to an assembly. First, consider what happens when you naively try to use an STL/CLR container directly across assembly boundaries, as in Listings 12-21 and 12-22. Listing 12-21. Attempting to Expose an STL/CLR Template to Another Assembly // stlclr_vector_assembly1.cpp #include <cliext\vector> // compile with: /LD using namespace cliext; typedef vector<int> VectorAssembly1; public ref class UsesVector { private: VectorAssembly1^ m_vec; public: UsesVector() { m_vec = gcnew VectorAssembly1(); } // produces compiler warning since VectorAssembly1 is private VectorAssembly1^ GetVectorTemplate() { return m_vec; } VectorAssembly1::generic_container^ GetVectorGeneric() { return m_vec; } };
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CHAPTER 12 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STL/CLR LIBRARY
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The compilation output warns that you re trying to expose an assembly-private type; STL/CLR container types are declared assembly-private in order to prevent errors such as trying to expose them to other assemblies. Listing 12-22 shows the attempt to use both the method that exposes the container type directly and the method that exposes the generic container. The compiler refuses to compile the call to the method that uses the container directly. Listing 12-22. Attempting to Use the STL/CLR Container Type from Another Assembly // stlclr_vector_assembly2.cpp #include <cliext\vector> #using "stlclr_vector_assembly1.dll" using namespace cliext; typedef vector<int> VectorAssembly2; int main() { UsesVector^ usesVector = gcnew UsesVector(); // Error: candidate function not accessible VectorAssembly2^ vec1 = usesVector->GetVectorTemplate(); VectorAssembly2::generic_container^ vec2 = usesVector->GetVectorGeneric(); } The bottom line is that the generic_container typedef is provided and intended to be used as the type for any public interface to the world outside a C++/CLI assembly. This method relies on the fact that the consuming assembly is a C++/CLI assembly and also includes the appropriate STL/CLR headers. This is great for using STL/CLR collections between C++/CLI assemblies, but in the larger .NET world, STL/CLR is unknown. In the next section, you ll learn how to access the STL/CLR containers from C# code. The same methods apply equally to VB .NET.
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Using the STL/CLR Generic Interfaces to Access an STL/CLR Container from C#
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The example shown in Listing 12-23 illustrates one way to expose STL/CLR collections to the .NET world. This scenario might be useful if you have just ported some STL code to managed code using STL/CLR, and want to work with these collections from your C# application. You could take the approach of creating a public class that has an interface to the .NET world using the .NET generic interfaces. Compile the C++/CLI code in pure mode so that it can easily be used from the C# program.
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