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CHAPTER 3 BUILDING C++/CLI PROGRAMS
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As you can see in Figure 3-4, the same dialog allows you to specify additional search paths to look for assemblies. You may have noticed that Visual Studio always seems to provide more than one way of doing the same thing. This is no exception. You could remove the reference from the Add References dialog box, and then add the folder containing your signed assembly to the property Resolve #using References under General and then C/C++. You were probably tempted to just add the directory containing your assembly right there in the Add Reference dialog box. This doesn t have any effect other than adding a setting in the project file.
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Note Assemblies must be signed in order to be used outside of the immediate folder containing your
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Setting the Compilation Mode
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The final thing you ll want to know to use the development environment effectively for writing programs that target the CLR is how to change the compilation mode. You do that via the same Property Pages dialog, except that the property you re looking for is, as mentioned earlier in this chapter, Common Language Runtime support. Figure 3-6 shows this setting and the available options.
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Figure 3-6. Selecting the CLR compilation mode on the General category under Configuration Properties
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CHAPTER 3 BUILDING C++/CLI PROGRAMS
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In this chapter, we ve looked at the difference between programming in classic C++ vs. managed code. We looked at Microsoft s Visual C++ and in particular the compilation modes available with Visual C++, including /clr:pure, /clr:safe, /clr:oldSyntax, /clr, and none of the above. We briefly discussed how to target 64-bit architectures with Visual C++. You also learned what an assembly is, looked at how to build one, examined what s in an assembly, saw how to reference other assemblies in a C++/CLI program, including how to control access to types in other assemblies, and briefly looked at the difference between the linker and the assembly linker. You also briefly saw some of what else there is to know about working with assemblies. There is much more that can be learned about assemblies in the CLR, but you now have enough for the purposes of working through the rest of this book. Finally, you learned about the features supporting C++/CLI available through the Visual Studio development environment. In the next chapter, you ll learn about objects and their semantics.
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Object Semantics in C++/CLI
his chapter gets back into the language itself and covers how objects behave in C++/CLI. You ll learn a bit more about value types and reference types, including some of the implications of having a unified type system. You ll also see how to work with objects on the managed heap as though they were stack-allocated variables, complete with the assurance that they will be cleaned up when they go out of scope. You ll look at tracking references and object dereferencing and copying. You ll also explore the various methods of passing parameters in C++/CLI and look at how to use C++/CLI types as return values.
Object Semantics for Reference Types
Variables of reference types, whether explicitly declared as a handle or not, are not the objects themselves; they are only references that may point to an actual object or may be unassigned. When a handle is first declared, it need not be assigned a value immediately. If not assigned, it is assigned the value nullptr, which is essentially an equivalent way of saying NULL or 0 in classic C++. Because handles can be null, functions that take reference types as parameters must always check to see whether the handle is null before using the object. Any attempt to access the nonexistent object will result in a NullReferenceException being thrown. References can be assigned using the assignment operator (=), so more than one handle may be created to the same object. Unlike value types, the assignment operator does not copy the object; only the handle (internally a heap address) is copied. Over the lifetime of an object, the number of handles to it may become quite large. The number of handles increases whenever an assignment occurs and decreases as reference variables go out of scope or are redirected to other objects. There is nothing special about the original handle that created the object it could go out of scope, but as long as there is at least one handle to an object, it is still considered a live object. There may come a time, finally, when the object has no remaining handles. At that point, it is an orphaned object. It still exists, but there s no way it can be accessed again in the program. The garbage collector is designed to eventually free up the memory for that object. The garbage collector runs on a separate background thread and has its own algorithm for determining when an object will be cleaned up. There is no way to be sure of when the object will be cleaned up relative to the execution of your program. If you need to explicitly control object cleanup, there is a way, which 6 will explain.
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