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C HA PTER 5 FUNDA MENTAL TYPES : STRINGS , ARRA YS , AN D E NUMS
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// All of the following tests result in True, since // the == operator is equivalent to the Equals method. if (str1 == str2) { Console::WriteLine(" str1 == str2" ); } if (str1 == str3) { Console::WriteLine(" str1 == str3" ); } if (str1->Equals(str2)) { Console::WriteLine(" str1 Equals str2" ); } if (str1->Equals(str3)) { Console::WriteLine(" str1 Equals str3"); } // // // // // if { ReferenceEquals compares the handles, not the actual string. The results are implementation dependent, since if the compiler creates a single-string representation for both string literals, as is the case here, this will resolve true. (String::ReferenceEquals(str1, str2))
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Console::WriteLine(" str1 ReferenceEquals str2"); } if (String::ReferenceEquals(str1, str3)) { Console::WriteLine(" str1 ReferenceEquals str3"); } } The output of Listing 5-1 is as follows: str1 str1 str1 str1 str1 str1 == str2 == str3 Equals str2 Equals str3 ReferenceEquals str2 ReferenceEquals str3
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To get the string as an array of characters, you can convert it to a character array using the ToCharArray method, as shown in Listing 5-2. Unlike the Chars property, this creates a new array of System::Char that contains a copy of each character in the string. System::Char is also known as wchar_t, the Unicode character type.
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CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMEN TA L TYPES: STRING S, A RRAY S, A ND ENUM S
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Listing 5-2. Converting a String to a Character Array // string_tochararray.cpp using namespace System; int main() { String^ str = "A quick sly fox jumped over the lazy brown dog."; array<Char>^ character_array = str->ToCharArray(); // Print the original string. Console::WriteLine(str); // Modify characters in the character array. for (int i = 0; i < character_array->Length; i++) { if ( character_array[i] >= L'a' && character_array[i] <= 'z') { character_array[i] -= (L'a' - L'A'); } } // Convert back to a String using the String constructor // that takes a Unicode character array. str = gcnew String(character_array); // Print the modified string: // A QUICK SLY FOX JUMPED OVER THE LAZY BROWN DOG. Console::WriteLine( str); } The output of Listing 5-2 is shown here: A quick sly fox jumped over the lazy brown dog. A QUICK SLY FOX JUMPED OVER THE LAZY BROWN DOG. Or, if you need to iterate over characters in a string, use the for each statement, as in Listing 5-3. Listing 5-3. Looping Through a String // string_foreach.cpp using namespace System;
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C HA PTER 5 FUNDA MENTAL TYPES : STRINGS , ARRA YS , AN D E NUMS
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int main() { String^ str1 = "Ode on a Grecian Urn"; for each (Char ch in str1) { Console::Write(ch); } Console::WriteLine(); } Here s the output of Listing 5-3:
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Ode on a Grecian Urn
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This code works because first, the String class implements the interface IEnumerable, and second, the GetEnumerator function returns a CharEnumerator, a class that implements IEnumerator. IEnumerator includes a property, Current, which in the case of CharEnumerator, returns a Char (which, as mentioned earlier, is the same as wchar_t).
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String Operators
C++/CLI overloads the + operator to create an easy syntax for string concatenation. The overloaded + operator works with strings, string literals, and other entities that can be converted to strings (which includes any managed type, since Object defines the ToString method that other objects inherit). In this way you can build up an output string using concatenation, rather than using the format string. This is not generally a good idea for applications that must be localized into other languages, since the different word order of different languages may mean that the order of concatenation is language dependent. Also, concatenation using the String class is not the most efficient way to perform string manipulations. Listing 5-4 shows the use of the string concatenation operator. Listing 5-4. Concatenating Strings // string_operator_plus.cpp using namespace System; int main() { String ^hrs = "Hours", ^mins = "Minutes"; wchar_t separator = ':'; int minutes = 56, hours = 1; Console::WriteLine( hrs + separator + " " + hours + "\n" + mins + separator + " " + minutes); }
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