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CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMEN TA L TYPES: STRING S, A RRAY S, A ND ENUM S
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The output of Listing 5-4 is as follows: Hours: 1 Minutes: 56 The addition operator works from left to right; so as long as the first operand is a string, each operand in the series will be converted to a string, even if some part of the expression could also be interpreted as another type of addition (such as adding integers). The ToString function is used to convert types to strings. Strings that are editable (also called mutable) should be instances of StringBuilder rather than String. StringBuilder is much more efficient at performing complicated string manipulations than String. You ll learn more about StringBuilder strings later in this chapter.
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Comparing Strings
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Strings implement IComparable, so they support the CompareTo method to compare to another string. You can also use the static method, Compare, to compare two strings. The version of the Compare static method that takes only two strings as parameters and the CompareTo method use the same comparison algorithm, but the Compare static method is overloaded and has several variations that allow the comparison to be customized. The CompareTo method, for any object that implements IComparable, returns a value representing one of three possibilities. A negative return value indicates that the first object is less than the second. A zero return value indicates that the two objects are equal. A positive return value indicates that the first object is greater than the second. For the CompareTo method, the first object is the object whose instance method is being called; for the static method, the first object is the first argument. Listing 5-5 shows the basic use of string comparison. Listing 5-5. Comparing Strings with CompareTo // string_compare.cpp using namespace System; int main() { String^ str1 = "cat"; String^ str2 = "cab"; if (str1->CompareTo( str2 ) < 0) { Console::WriteLine(str1 + " is less than " + str2); } // For variety, use the static method. else if ( String::Compare(str1, str2) > 0 ) { Console::WriteLine("{0} is less than {1}", str2, str1); }
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C HA PTER 5 FUNDA MENTAL TYPES : STRINGS , ARRA YS , AN D E NUMS
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else if ( str1->CompareTo( str2 ) == 0) { Console::WriteLine("The strings are both equal, with value {0}.", str1); } } Here is the output of Listing 5-5:
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cab is less than cat
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Implementing the IComparable interface allows strings to be used in all sorts of container classes where comparison is a requirement. For example, in 11, you ll see how to define a generic collection class that has a constraint indicating that any class used in the generic collection must implement IComparable. This allows the author of the generic class to assume certain functionality, such as the existence of the CompareTo method. The CompareTo method alone isn t rich enough to support all the factors that might be relevant in comparing strings in real-world code. Sometimes comparison must be case sensitive, other times comparison must be case insensitive. Additionally, comparison in some applications must be sensitive to culture, since alphabets and alphabetical order are dependent on locale. The CompareTo method also includes overloads that support comparison of substrings. There s also a CompareOrdinal method that is useful if the strings represent numbers and you want a comparison of the number.
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Formatting Strings
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The Format methods format a string for output. The .NET Framework formatting support is very rich, supporting a highly customizable output format and providing an extensible framework for defining your own custom formats as well. The same formatting rules are used for the Console class s WriteLine method for output to the console. The string used to specify the desired formatting and that acts as a template for the output is called the format string. The format string contains placeholders that are numbered starting with zero and surrounded by curly braces, as in the following string: String^ string1 = String::Format("The population of {0} is {1}", "Pleasantville", 500); or, in a WriteLine method: Console::WriteLine("The population of {0} is {1}.", "Pleasantville", 500); Both lines of code substitute Pleasantville for the {0} and 500 for the {1}. The type of the argument need not be supplied, as the language contains enough type information without any further specification. The number in curly braces is referred to as the index. It is followed, optionally, by a comma and number specifying the minimum width of the field. The sign of the number specifies the justification (positive for right-justification, negative for left-justification). One can also append a colon and a formatting string that is used to customize the output format. The available formatting strings are dependent on the type. A variety of formatting codes exists for formatting numeric
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