Enumerated Types in C#

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Enumerated Types
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C++/CLI supports an enumerated type. Of course, classic C++ also supports enumerated types. There are some interesting differences between the managed enum class type and C++ enums. In classic C++, an enum is an integer type. In C++/CLI, the enum class is also treated as an integral type but, rather like int can be boxed into an object type, and array types inherit implicitly
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C HA PTER 5 FUNDA MENTAL TYPES : STRINGS , ARRA YS , AN D E NUMS
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System::Array, enum objects inherit implicitly from System::Enum, and methods available on System::Enum may be called. This inheritance relationship doesn t preclude them from being treated as integers for efficiency, however, since, like any other value types, they are only boxed into the relevant object type when needed, for example, to call a method.
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The Enum Class
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Enumerated types are supported in C++/CLI using the enum class (or enum structure). Enum classes have a series of static named fields that have a fixed integral value. There is no operative difference between an enum structure and class. You saw in 2 that the enum class is used to define an enumerated type. Enumerated types are value types. The enum variable may be a handle, in which case it s a boxed value type, or it may be created on the stack. It could also be a member of a class and be part of the layout of the enclosing class. The example in Listing 5-36 shows the basic syntax for declaring and using an enum class. Listing 5-36. Using an Enum // enum.cpp enum class Flavor { Vanilla, Chocolate, Strawberry }; int main() { // The enum variable may be a handle // or a stack variable. If used as a handle, // it's a boxed value type. // The enum value, Vanilla, is // scoped by the enum class name. Flavor^ flavor_handle = Flavor::Vanilla; Flavor flavor_stack = Flavor::Vanilla; } Note the differences between the usage of enum class values and classic C++ enum values. Enum class values are scoped with the name of the enum class; classic C++ enum values are not scoped with the name of the enum.
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Enumerated Types and Conversions
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Another difference between C++/CLI enum class types and classic C++ enums is in how they are handled in conversions. The classic C++ enum is readily converted to an int. In fact, it is an int in disguise. This can be very useful, and many programming idioms use this conversion
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CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMEN TA L TYPES: STRING S, A RRAY S, A ND ENUM S
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liberally, but it can also result in subtle bugs when a conversion is not what was intended. The C++/CLI enum is also an integral type in disguise, but by contrast, enum class objects must be converted to integer types explicitly, the price to be paid for greater type safety. // Try to convert an enum class value to int. int i = Flavor::Vanilla; // Error! The conversion must be made explicit with a cast, like so: int i = (int) Flavor::Vanilla; A safe_cast is preferred because the resulting code is verifiably safe: int i = safe_cast<int>(Flavor::Vanilla);
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The Underlying Type of an Enum
The enum class has an underlying integral type. C++/CLI provides a way to specify this underlying type. The syntax is rather like the syntax for inheritance, in that the underlying type is used after a colon, rather like specifying a base type (see Listing 5-37). Listing 5-37. Specifying the Underlying Type of an Enum // enum_type_specified.cpp using namespace System; enum class Ordinal : char { zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty }; int main() { char c1 = 13; Ordinal ord1 = safe_cast<Ordinal>(c1); Console::WriteLine(ord1.ToString()); } Here is the output of Listing 5-37:
thirteen
C HA PTER 5 FUNDA MENTAL TYPES : STRINGS , ARRA YS , AN D E NUMS
The Flags Attribute
A typical use of enums is to define a set of independent binary values, known as flags, that can be combined by using the bitwise OR operator (|). The Flags attribute is intended to be used on enum classes that can be treated as a series of flags, as in Listing 5-38. Listing 5-38. Using the Flags Attribute // enum_flags.cpp using namespace System; [Flags] enum class FontFormat { None = 0, // No flags set. BOLD = 1, // The values are set to powers of 2 ITALIC = 2, // so that in binary, each represents one bit position. UNDERLINE = 4, STRIKETHROUGH = 8, RED = 16, FLASHING = 32, BOLD_ITALIC = BOLD | ITALIC // combination of two values }; ref class Font { public: property String^ Name; Font(String^ s) { Name = s; } }; ref class Display { public: static void SetFont(Font^ font, FontFormat format) { // Testing the bits of a Flags enum using the bitwise and operator (&) // requires a cast to int. if (safe_cast<int>(format) & safe_cast<int>(FontFormat::BOLD)) { // Use a bold font. }
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