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CHAPTER 6 CLASSES AND STRUCTS
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Listing 6-15. Using a Managed Type in a Native Type // gcroot_and_auto_gcroot.cpp #include <msclr/gcroot.h> #include <msclr/auto_gcroot.h> using namespace System; using namespace msclr; // managed class R ref class R { public: void f() { Console::WriteLine("managed member function"); }
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~R() { Console::WriteLine("destructor"); } }; // native class N class N { gcroot<R^> r_gcroot; auto_gcroot<R^> r_auto_gcroot; public: N() { r_gcroot = gcnew R(); r_gcroot->f(); r_auto_gcroot = gcnew R(); r_auto_gcroot->f(); } }; int main() { N n; // When n goes out of scope, the destructor for the auto_gcroot object // will be executed, but not the gcroot object. }
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CHAPTER 6 CLASSES AND STRUCTS
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The output of Listing 6-15 is as follows: managed member function managed member function destructor You see only one call to the destructor the destructor for the auto_gcroot object. 13 will present more examples of interoperability between managed and native types and functions.
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Typically, C++ classes that use limited resources, such as operating system device contexts, database connections, files, and so on, are implemented using an idiom called RAII (Resource Acquisition Is Initialization). RAII specifies that acquiring resources is to be done in a constructor. Having adopted such a pattern, the class design will have to deal with properly freeing these resources in a prompt and predictable manner to ensure an application s best behavior and performance. Native C++ programs use the destructor for this, and they can be assured that whenever a block or stack frame is completed, temporary objects created on the stack will be released, their destructors called, and any limited resources freed. Such assurances of prompt freeing of resources are, at first glance, not available in the managed environment, when the object isn t really cleaned up until the garbage collector runs. The CLI provides the Dispose method (and the interface IDisposable, which defines this one method) to solve this problem. The Dispose method is never called directly from C++/CLI code, as for example, you might in C# code. If you re a C# programmer, you ll want to pay close attention to the information in this section since it differs markedly from the C# behavior. In C#, you might call Dispose directly, or you might use the using statement to create a scope for your object, and have the Dispose method called automatically at the end of that scope. Instead, C++/CLI provides a more familiar (to classic C++ programmers) way to use the RAII model. You implement a destructor much as you would in classic C++. Implementing a destructor causes the object to implicitly implement IDisposable. The destructor, in fact, becomes the Dispose method and hence implements the interface. In C++/CLI, if you define a destructor as usual, you can be assured that your object s destructor will be called when the object goes out of scope as a result of the stack going out of scope or the destruction of the enclosing object, or an explicit call to delete on a handle to the object. delete is used to call the destructor for a handle object, so use delete if you need to call the destructor, but aren t using stack semantics. (There is no such thing as gcdelete; the delete operator is able to serve for both native pointers and managed handles, since the appropriate form may be determined from the entity being deleted.) The destructor is not called when the garbage collector cleans up the object, so if you do not call delete for your handle, the destructor won t get called at all.
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C++/CLI allows you to also define a function that gets called when the garbage collector actually frees your object. This special function is called the finalizer. If you don t deal with unmanaged
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