asp.net display barcode font EXC EPTION S, ATTRIBUTES, A ND REFLEC TION in Visual C#

Generate ECC200 in Visual C# EXC EPTION S, ATTRIBUTES, A ND REFLEC TION

CHAPTER 10 EXC EPTION S, ATTRIBUTES, A ND REFLEC TION
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Reflection
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Now that you ve defined all this metadata for a type, you ll want to access it programmatically. Getting attributes on an object is an example of the use of reflection, a .NET Framework feature that recalls the runtime type information (RTTI) feature in classic C++. Reflection enables you to query the attributes of an object at runtime, as well as other metadata associated with a type, such as the type name, inheritance relationships, properties, methods, and events of a type. Not only can you query for information, but you can also create new types, instantiate objects, and call methods on these objects from dynamically loaded assemblies, even if the type or method name is known only from reflection. Reflection does not work with mixed mode (compiled with /clr) executables; you must compile with /clr:pure or /clr:safe in order to use reflection on an assembly. This is because reflection only knows how to load MSIL; it has no knowledge of non-MSIL code that is present in mixed mode. The Assembly::LoadFrom method we used in 9 is a good way to get started with reflection. Once we ve loaded an assembly, we can get the types in the assembly as a collection of Type objects using the GetTypes method on the assembly class, as in Listing 10-16. Listing 10-16. Loading an Assembly and Reflecting on Types Assembly^ assembly = Assembly::LoadFrom("myassembly.dll"); array<Type^>^ types = assembly->GetTypes(); for each (Type^ t in types) { Console::WriteLine(t->ToString()); } The Type object is a gateway to all the information about the type, including the methods, method parameters, properties, constructors and so on. Throughout this book, you ve seen multiple ways to get Type objects. If the type is accessible at compile time, you can get a type object by specifying ::typeid on a managed type. ::typeid is a compiler-defined way of getting the Type object. Type^ t = String::typeid; // Get the static type. For a type that is known only from an object, you can use the GetType method inherited from Object, so it s available on all managed types. The difference between GetType and typeid is that GetType returns the dynamic type, whereas typeid evaluates to the static type. The dynamic type may be different from the static type when, for example, a derived class object is represented by a base class pointer. In that case, the dynamic type is the real type of the object (e.g., Derived), but the static type is Base. Type^ t = obj->GetType(); // Get the dynamic type.
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You can also create a Type object using the text of a class name using a static method of the Type class. Type^ t = Type::GetType("System::DateTime"); The Type class has methods like GetAttributes, GetMembers, and GetMethods to find out about the type, and, once the member names and parameter information is known, you can
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CHAPTER 10 EXC EPTION S, ATTRIBUTE S, A ND REFLEC TION
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invoke methods with the InvokeMember method (see Listing 10-17). If you need an instance, you use the Activator::CreateInstance method (see Listing 10-18). Listing 10-17. Reflecting with Type Methods // reflection_general.cpp using namespace System; using namespace System::Reflection; // a class to reflect upon ref class Reflector { public:
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// Load an assembly, and print out the methods in the types in the // assembly, invoking the specified method on the specified type. void LoadAndReflect(String^ assemblyFileName) { Assembly^ assembly = Assembly::LoadFrom(assemblyFileName); array<Type^>^ types = assembly->GetTypes(); for each (Type^ t in types) { Console::WriteLine(t->ToString()); // Get the methods and loop over them. array<MethodInfo^>^ methods = t->GetMethods(); for each (MethodInfo^ method in methods) { Console::Write(" {0} {1}(", method->ReturnType->ToString(), method->Name); // Get the parameters and loop over them. array<ParameterInfo^>^ params = method->GetParameters(); // We don't use for each here because we need to use the index // to determine whether a comma is needed. for (int i = 0; i < params->Length; i++) { ParameterInfo^ param = params[i]; Console::Write("{0} {1}", param->ParameterType->ToString(), param->Name); if (i < params->Length - 1) Console::Write(", "); } Console::WriteLine(")");
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