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Many services under CentOS use a standard logging system called syslog. You are probably familiar with the log files located in /var/log. Many of these are controlled by syslog. Each service that uses syslog must nominate a facility to indicate the type of service it is. There are not enough facilities for each service to have its own unique value, so many services may use the same value. For example, sendmail and dovecot both use the mail facility because they both process email. There are also a number of generic facilities, named local0 thru local7. Under CentOS, some of these are already allocated but you are free to alter them if required. Table 10-4 shows the available facilities.
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CHAPTER 10 NETWORK SECURITY
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Table 10-4. syslog Facilities
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authpriv cron daemon ftp kern lpr mail news syslog user uucp local0 local1 local2 local3 local4 local5 local6 local7
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Used for security and sensitive authorization messages Used by the cron and at services Used by generic services that do not have a dedicated facility Used by any FTP service Used by messages generated by the kernel Used by the printing subsystem Used by mail services Used by the USENET news service Used by the syslog service Generic user-generated messages Used by the UUCP subsystem Available for local customization Available for local customization Available for local customization Available for local customization Used by clustering software Used by SpamAssassin, an open source mail filter Available for local customization Used for boot time messages
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Each message sent to syslog is also tagged with a priority. The priority indicates the importance of the message from debug information thru emergency messages. The available priorities are show in Table 10-5. The priority of a message is determined by the author of the service. Although each priority has a description, there are no hard and fast rules for selecting a priority, and relying heavily on them should be avoided. Generally all priorities from Information and above are of interest and are logged.
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CHAPTER 10 NETWORK SECURITY
Table 10-5. syslog Priorities
Priority
Debug Information Notice
Description
Unimportant unless you are debugging a specific problem General information message Normal significant condition
Example
A hexadecimal dump of a packet. A service has accepted a connection. The kernel has detected an unknown piece of hardware. An operation has failed but will be retried. A service has crashed. File system corruption has been detected. A RAID disk failure has been detected. The system is overheating.
Warning Error Critical Alert Emergency
Warning condition Error condition Critical condition Condition requiring immediate action System unusable
When the message is saved to the log file it is also saved with a timestamp and the name of the host that generated the message. Listing 10-18 shows some sample log entries from /var/log/messages and /var/log/secure. Note that the message does not indicate the priority or the facility that was used when the message was sent. Listing 10-18. Sample Log Messages Mar 20 17:12:26 acer shutdown[4215]: shutting down for system reboot Mar 20 17:14:30 acer kernel: Using APIC driver default Mar 20 17:14:30 acer kernel: pnp: 00:09: ioport range 0x400 0x4bf could not be reserved Mar 20 17:14:30 acer kernel: r8169: eth0: link up Mar 20 17:14:43 acer dhclient: DHCPREQUEST on eth0 to 192.168.2.1 port 67 Mar 21 20:09:10 acer login: pam_unix(login:session): session opened for user root by LOGIN(uid=0) Mar 21 20:51:58 acer sshd[14837]: error: Bind to port 22 on 0.0.0.0 failed: Address already in use. Mar 21 20:52:09 acer groupadd[14854]: new group: name=ecryptfs, GID=105
Configuring the Server to Receive Logs
It is possible to send syslog messages over the network to a central log processing server. To enable the reception of log messages on the server you must edit the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/syslog and add the r option to SYSLOGD_OPTIONS, as shown in Listing 10-19. Listing 10-19. /etc/sysconfig/syslog Edited to Allow Remote Logging
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