birt barcode font lists some of the flags that you can use to define privileges in the sudoers file. in Font

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Table 3-1 lists some of the flags that you can use to define privileges in the sudoers file.
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Table 3-1. sudoers Flags
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mail_always mail_badpass mail_no_user mail_no_host mail_no_perms tty_tickets authenticate root_sudo log_host log_year set_home
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Sends mail to the mailto user for every sudo event. Sends mail to the mailto user if the password is entered incorrectly. Sends mail to the mailto user if the user is not in the sudoers file. Sends mail to the mailto user if the host disallows the user. Sends mail to the mailto user if a disabled command is run. Users must authenticate per shell instance. Users must authenticate before running commands. Disables users from invoking a shell using sudo. Adds the hostname to logs. Adds the year to logs. Sets the HOME variable (~) to the target user s home.
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Table 3-1. sudoers Flags
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always_set_home path_info fqdn insults requiretty env_editor rootpw runaspw targetpw set_logname stay_setuid
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Always sets the HOME variable (~) to the target user s home. Disables prompts that a command is not in a user s path. Puts fully qualified hostnames in the sudoers file. Insults users when they enter incorrect passwords. Disables running visudo unless a Terminal session is present. Allows other text editors for editing sudoers file. This is useful if limiting to pico or vi. Prompts for root password instead of invoking a user s password. Prompts for the password of the user defined by runas_default. Prompts for the password of the user specified when using u. Logs sudo events using the invoking user s name. Runs sudo as the real UID of the invoking user (same as set_logname).
To edit the sudoers file, you will be using the visudo command. This command will lock the file so that it can not be written to by multiple programs. It will also verify that the file is complete with all its necessary parts and will check the file for syntax errors before allowing you to save it. Because the visudo command uses the vi text editor to edit the sudoers file, you will likely want to become familiar with vi before editing your sudoers file.
Note Before editing the file, it is also a good idea to read the man (manual) page for visudo by entering
man visudo at the command line. This will go into full detail on the uses and syntax for the program.
If the file is not edited properly, it should not allow you to save it when you are finished editing. You can use the c option with visudo to run a check of the file s syntax and ensure it is able to parse properly. The c stands for check mode. You can run the command by entering the following: visudo c This should return with the following line provided that the file parses correctly: /private/etc/sudoers file parsed OK Now that you know how to check the file, let s take a look at the f option, which is used to specify an alternate sudoers file location, leaving the live sudoers file untouched. There are a variety of reasons you might want to work in a separate location, such as if you were going to take the file to another system or don t want it to go live for a few days. For example, you can use the following command to create a temporary sudoers file called sudoers.inprogress:
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visudo f /etc/sudoers.inprogress You can use aliases in the sudoers file to indicate a variable that contains a user, multiple users, a group, or multiple groups. When working with multiple users on a system, it is always a good idea to create aliases on the system. If you need to apply the same access rights to a group of users, you can do this by using an alias membership rather than by applying permissions for each user individually. When referencing an alias or group of users in sudoers, you will notice that % will be placed in front of the group name. To be clear, the % character is not used to signify the name of a new group but is used to reference groups. For example, by adding the following line to the sudoers file, you could create an alias called powerusers that contains members of a group called admin, the user called cedge, and a user called MyCompany. We will also create an entry that simply lists those who the webmasters are: User_Alias User_Alias powerusers = %admin, cedge, MyCompany websusers = mark, joel, michael
Setting up a Runas_Alias for a user or group will define the user or system daemon that a user or alias can run as when using the sudo command. In the following line, we will tell the system that the webusers defined previously are able to run commands as the apache system user: Runas_Alias webusers = apache
The Host_Alias allows you to define a group of computers, also called hosts. You can reference hosts by name, by IP, or by a range of either. When defining a range, it is often easiest to use wildcards, which are used as catchalls. Wildcards that can be used are similar to those available in shell scripting, as shown in Table 3-2.
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