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Note Disk Arbitration is covered in further detail in 16.
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SUID Applications: Getting into the Nitty-Gritty
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There are a variety of applications running on your system, and not all run as your user. When you open Activity Monitor from /Applications/Utilities and change the filter option to Administrator Processes, you will see all the processes running on the system as root. Applications that are running as root often have the SUID bit set, causing them to be run as the owner of the file, which for many of these applications is root. To view whether a file has the SUID bit set, you can run an ls l command in a given directory to look for any file with a listing that has an s listed rather than an execute bit in the permissions line for owners of the file. For example: -r-s--x--x 1 root root 19809 Jan 14 14:05 ps
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Binary files (executables) that are not written well can cause SUID bits to allow for privilege escalation. Although you might not want to allow SUID files on your system, it s not realistic to remove the SUID bit from all files because some applications will require certain files to be SUID, such as login. Most SUID applications exist to specifically let users perform privileged operations or gain access to resources that require root privileges when they are not logged in as the root user. Therefore, the root user owns most SUID applications. Many applications that are not written specifically to allow manual privilege escalation actually provide a way to execute a command. Vi allows users to run commands from within the interactive text editor. Many other commands, such as less and more, allow commands to be executed by pressing the ! key while viewing a file that takes up more than one page of content. Knowing whether each SUID application is dangerous requires knowing the details of using each of these applications and whether a shell command can be run from within the command or some binary file can be invoked receiving root access. To find all SUID applications, use the following command for a listing of all SUID or SGID files: sudo find / type f \( perm 04000 or perm 02000 \) ls
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Note Mac OS X allowed SUID shell scripts until the 10.3.9 software update, so if you are running an operating
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system prior to Tiger 10.4, consider SUID shell scripts while auditing your system.
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To fix the SUID scenario, set the UID for a user. In our example, the user will be test. If the file is executed, it will now run with the rights of the user invoking the file and not with the rights of the user who runs it: chmod u+s test
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If you are in a SGID scenario rather than a SUID scenario, set the GID for test. If executed, the file will now run with the rights of the group of the file and not with the rights of the group that runs it: chmod g+s test If an SGID (group SUIDs) is set on a directory, all new created files inside this folder won t get the main group ID of the creator. Instead, they will be created with the group ID of the folder. For example, the SGID is set for the test folder folder1, and it has the group ID for www. Now, if the root user creates a file inside folder1, the group ID for this file will not be root but www. SUID and SGID can be set at the same time.
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Creating Files with Permissions
By default, when creating a new file, the default permissions of that file are determined by the umask variable. You can work with the umask to edit the default permissions of new files. You can configure the umask setting by using the umask command. First, run the command umask from a Terminal screen by typing umask at a command prompt. When you do this, you will get a number as your response. The umask variable is subtracted from the total number possible for securing Unix files, 777. This leads to a umask of 0022 creating new files on a hard drive with permissions of 755.
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