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ipfw to configure your firewall is to block outgoing traffic for certain ports, a feature not available otherwise.
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Note Later in this chapter we will discuss blocking outgoing traffic, but it is important to point out that you can block outgoing traffic only by using either the command line or a third-party application. You can block incoming traffic by using the built-in firewall in System Preferences.
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Using ipfw
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As previously discussed in this chapter, the firewall located on the Sharing pane in Tiger is based on the open source program ipfw. ipfw is short for Internet Protocol Firewall and can also be used with Leopard. The ipfw program has the ability to configure the firewall in OS X more securely than any other program. However, there is a rather steep learning curve when configuring the firewall with the ipfw interface for the first time, especially if you aren t very experienced with BSD. But learning curves are good. They offer you a chance to know more about the firewall on your system, what it is doing, and the key factors you should consider to make your network more secure. You also have the opportunity to get to know more about the inner workings of your system and how the different pieces to the security puzzle fit together. Because ipfw works at the kernel level, or innermost level, of the operating system, it is a highly secure command set to use and requires that you run it from a superuser account. This is accomplished by using the sudo command to issue commands and create rules for it. Applications such as LimeWire or Samba (the Windows file-sharing component of Mac OS X) cannot override rules enforced by ipfw because of the secure nature of the command. This provides for a far more secure way of controlling threats to the system. The official syntax for the base ipfw toolkit is as follows: ipfw [-cq] add rule ipfw [-acdefnNStT] {list | show} [rule | first-last ...] ipfw [-f | -q] flush ipfw [-q] {delete | zero | resetlog} [set] [number ...] ipfw enable {firewall | one_pass | debug | verbose | dyn_keepalive} ipfw disable {firewall | one_pass | debug | verbose | dyn_keepalive}
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The Anatomy of an ipfw Rule
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To understand how to make the firewall perform many of its more complex features, you first need to understand what the firewall is doing and how it interacts with rules and the rule set. An ipfw rule is a line of code that informs your firewall about what is acceptable to allow and what to do when a pattern that you indicate is encountered. The ipfw rule set is the combination of all the ipfw rules that need to be invoked to provide the proper security for the policy. ipfw applies this rule set as criteria for whether network traffic that is being scanned is acceptable to enter the network. This can include which rules to log, what to do when a pattern matches a rule, and how much bandwidth is possible on a rule (using dummynet). Rules in an ipfw rule set are processed based on their numerical priority. Each rule requires a unique five-digit number in the first column of the rule that tells ipfw what priority to assign
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it in a rule set. They are then processed in order from highest to lowest. This is an example of an ipfw rule: 01000 allow log all from any to any via en0
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Note The rule number of this rule is 01000. Multiple rules can share the same number, but this is typically
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discouraged because it can make troubleshooting difficult.
This particular example rule allows all traffic into or out of the computer from any source over the en0 network interface and logs the activity (more about logging later). The en0 signifies the particular network interface our computer is using for the rule. To find out what names a computer uses for its network interfaces, reference Network Utility, located at /Applications/Utilities, to list the various network interface names. Network Utility shows each network interface, and when you click an interface, it shows detailed information about the interface on the screen (see Figure 8-9).
Figure 8-9. Network Utility You can see a list of all the rules that are applied to your system by running the ipfw show command. When you run this command, you will see something like this:
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