birt barcode generator Note Pipe masks get very complicated. We are looking to help you get started with using them, but in Font

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mastering pipe masks is beyond the scope of this book. Refer to the manual page for ipfw in order to gain a mastery of them.
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Queues
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Sometimes you may want to assign priority to certain protocols. For example, you may be surfing the Internet from your home office computer and notice that the Internet is running very slowly. You have already designated certain pipes to allow certain bandwidth capacities. However, you would rather have Internet traffic take priority over other protocols on your network. This is different from throttling in ipfw rules. You have already told each service that it can take
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only a certain amount of resources. At this point you want to control which service will receive priority when two services compete for those resources. A queue is one way to prioritize traffic that runs over a certain pipe. Queues have weights (similar to priorities) assigned to them using a range of 1 to 100. A weight can take up a certain percentage of a pipe. If you have two queues with weights of 20 and 80, they will take up 20 percent and 80 percent of a pipe, respectively. However, if you specify weights that do not equal 100, the pipe will assume you are splitting the weight between the two and divvy the weight up proportionately. For example, if you have two queues with weights of 10 and 40, it will compute that they will take up 20 percent and 80 percent of the pipe, respectively. By allowing traffic shaping in such a highly configurable manner, it is possible to have many different groupings, or queues, of systems that can receive various proportions of throughput to a pipe. For example, a creative workgroup environment accessing a computer with File Sharing enabled will need some throttling to prevent the computer from being overloaded with requests. We know that the system will choke if it receives more than 800 megabits worth of connections, so we will build a pipe allowing only 800Mb at a time. Of the connections we have coming into that pipe, we will build four queues. These will receive weights proportional to the bandwidth we want them to have. In our example, we ll consider a typical creative workgroup. Queue 1 contains our creative users who are accessing the server using AFP (548). Queue 2 has our executive producers who are accessing the server through HTTP (80). Queue 3 contains our external users that access the server over FTP (21), and queue 4 has our backup system that uses Retrospect (497). The following represents a series of commands to build the appropriate queues for pipe 1 using what would typically be proportional weights: ipfw ipfw ipfw ipfw ipfw ipfw ipfw ipfw ipfw pipe 1 config bw 800Mbit/s queue 1 config pipe 1 weight 90 queue 2 config pipe 1 weight 80 queue 3 config pipe 1 weight 30 queue 4 config pipe 1 weight 10 add 40 queue 1 from any to any dst-port add 41 queue 2 from any to any dst-port add 42 queue 3 from any to any dst-port add 43 queue 4 from any to any dst-port
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548 80 20-21 497
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In the previous rule set, we first created a pipe with an 800Mb limit. Then we created four queues with varying weights to create the various pipes for traffic to move through. From there we added four firewall rules (40 through 43) and assigned a destination port to each individual queue, allowing traffic from different ports to travel on their respective pipes. We also could have replaced the any statements on a per-rule basis to limit which IP addresses or ranges of IP addresses on which each queue is processed. For example, if you wanted to limit Retrospect traffic from one bandwidth-hogging computer (192.168.55.89) but not to the other computers, then you would be able to use the following in place of the last line of the previous code: ipfw add 43 queue 4 from 192.168.55.89 to any dst-port 497 Now our creative group is functioning with traffic shaping based on their prioritized needs for accessing data. As you ve seen throughout this chapter, the firewall in Mac OS X can be both highly configurable and easy to use.
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