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CHAPTER 3 DEFINING THE FOUNDATION
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public IIncomes[] Incomes { get { if( _incomes == null) { throw new PropertyNotDefined( "BaseTaxation.Incomes"); } return _incomes; } set { _incomes = value; } } public IDeductions[] Deductions { get { if( _deductions == null) { throw new PropertyNotDefined( "BaseTaxation.Deductions"); } return _deductions; } set { _deductions = value; } } public abstract Decimal CalculateTax(); } The class BaseTaxation has the scope public abstract and implements the interface ITaxation. The properties Incomes and Deductions are implemented in the class and provide the base logic for all taxation implementations. The C# compiler will require the method CalculateTax to be implemented and is therefore declared as abstract. The use of the keyword abstract is targeted and makes it simpler to implement a base logic. When using the abstract keyword in the context of a class, it means that the class can be subclassed, but can t be instantiated. This is appropriate because the defined base class is a helper class and not a full implementation. It s absolutely vital to remember this; otherwise the class might be inappropriately instantiated. Consider any implemented method in the base class as a method that all derived implementations will use without change. And consider any implemented method as an implementation that is structural and has less to do with application process logic. When implementing an interface in a default base class, all methods have to be implemented, even though the methods might not be relevant for the default base class. For example, the class BaseTaxation requires the implementation of the method CalculateTax. As the default base class doesn t actually provide a default implementation for the methods, the appropriate choice for each method is to use the keyword abstract. By using this keyword on a method, the method doesn t have to be implemented, but requires any subclass to implement the method. Default base classes are a very powerful mechanism used by controller classes. But they aren t limited to controller classes and can be used in different contexts where a basic functionality is required. Default base classes will often be exposed using the internal keyword, even though the class BaseTaxation is public in scope. The scope identifier depends on how many implementations will use the default base class. All implementations of ITaxation will subclass BaseTaxation, as the properties are useful for all implementations and the public scope is appropriate.
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CHAPTER 3 DEFINING THE FOUNDATION
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If you are using .NET Generics, default base classes are an excellent opportunity to include .NET Generics. For example, the class BaseTaxation could be defined in terms of Generic types. When implementing taxation for a particular country, the type BaseTaxation would be subclassed using specific types. Multiple default base classes could be defined. For example, a BaseEUTaxation abstract class would subclass the BaseTaxation class. This is because the tax systems within the EU use similar rules even though the rates and calculations are different. Then the German and French tax implementations would derive from the BaseEUTaxation abstract class. When defining multiple default base classes, it s important to use the abstract keyword to ensure no factory attempts to instantiate an incomplete class. Abstract classes are useful, but they also create problems when testing the individual classes. The abstract class can t be instantiated, and therefore it s necessary that mock objects derive from the default base classes. Following is an example of a test for the BaseTaxation class: internal class MockBaseTaxation : BaseTaxation { public override Decimal CalculateTax() { throw new MockNotImplemented(); } } internal class MockIncome : IIncomes { public void SampleMethod() { throw new MockNotImplemented(); } } [TestFixture]public class TaxTests { [Test]public void TestAssignIncomeProperty() { IIncomes[] inc = new IIncomes[ 1]; inc[ 0] = new MockIncome(); ITaxation taxation = new MockBaseTaxation(); taxation.Incomes = inc; Assert.AreEqual( inc, taxation.Incomes, "Not same object"); } [Test] [ExpectedException(typeof(PropertyNotDefined))] public void TestRetrieveIncomeProperty() { ITaxation taxation = new MockBaseTaxation(); IIncomes[] inc = taxation.Incomes; } } Mock objects were created for the IIncomes and BaseTaxation types. In real life, the IDeductions interface would have had an associated mock object, but it wasn t implemented for the purpose of clarity. A mock object was created for the IIncomes interface because the focus of the test is to determine the BaseTaxation type. The required methods to be implemented by the types IIncomes and BaseTaxation will generate an exception. This is done on purpose and reflects the nature of the BaseTaxation type in that none of those methods should be used
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