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Writing a Quick-and-Dirty Application
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Let s start by building the translation application using quick-and-dirty techniques. The requirements are simple in that the application needs to be able to translate a text phrase from English to German. Using a tool that supports a GUI designer generates a user interface similar to what appears in Figure 5-1.
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Figure 5-1. Translation tool user interface The user interface has two textboxes. The user enters English text in the upper textbox that he or she wants to be translated and output in the lower textbox. The button executes the translation. The translation service would be implemented as a class and be called from the GUI as illustrated by the following source code: namespace Chap05.GenericGUI { public partial class BasicForm : Form { private Original.TranslateToGerman _translation = new Original.TranslateToGerman(); public BasicForm() { InitializeComponent(); }
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CHAPTER 5 IMPLEMENTING COMPONENT GROUPINGS
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private void button1_Click( object sender, EventArgs e ) { textBox2.Text = _translation.Translate( textBox1.Text ); } } } The class BasicForm uses .NET 2.0 techniques where it s partially defined using the partial keyword. The rest of the BasicForm implementation is beyond the scope of this book because it contains code generated to create the GUI illustrated in Figure 5-1. The method button1_Click is an event handler that is called whenever the Translate button is clicked. The event handler instantiates the class TranslateToGerman, and then calls the method translation.Translate to translate the text. The implementation of TranslateToGerman is defined as follows: namespace Original { public class TranslateToGerman { public string Translate( string word ) { if( String.Compare( word, "Good Morning" ) == 0 ) { return "Guten Morgen"; } else { return "Could not translate"; } } } } The TranslateToGerman class is generally useless because it can only translate the text Good Morning. This is OK, because the implementation of the method Translate that performs the translation isn t the focus of this exercise. Having a simple implementation is acceptable because somebody else will implement a full translation service as defined by the class TranslateToGerman. At this point, the application is complete, and the only remaining step is to implement the algorithms to translate the text. If you were the coder, you could feel happy about this code for the following reasons: The translation class TranslateToGerman is separate and not dependent on the BasicForm class, allowing the GUI developer to reuse the business logic of the TranslateToGerman class. The entire implementation is simple, making it easier to understand and test the application. An easy-to-understand application makes maintenance and writing extensions simpler. From the source code, you can probably spot several reasons why you might not be happy with the implemented application. This doesn t negate the preceding reasons to be happy. What it means is that an application has been implemented using the most direct means possible. The direct means are object oriented, and more than that would not seem to be necessary.
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CHAPTER 5 IMPLEMENTING COMPONENT GROUPINGS
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One of the major reasons why this problem is difficult is because it s GUI code, which can very often be messy from an architectural point of view.
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Instead of rewriting the example code, it s going to be refactored incrementally. Refactoring is the process of changing the source code without doing a rewrite of the source code. I m also implementing the technique refactoring to patterns, which I ll discuss in more detail in 9. You ll want to refactor a code base for one of these four reasons: You want to add a feature, and it isn t possible without making changes. You want to fix a bug that affects other classes. You need to improve the design because there are hacks in a source code base that can become problematic in the future. You need to optimize resources because the application might be too slow or require too much memory. The quick-and-dirty example needs to be refactored for the following reasons: There is no separation of intention and implementation of the class TranslateToGerman. Imagine if the application needed to support multiple languages. The application, while appearing simple, really isn t simple. The class TranslateToGerman requires some knowledge to use properly. That knowledge is embedded in the .NET form, where a value has to be extracted from one control, and then assigned to another control. If the application is ported to another platform, or used in another context, somebody has to take the time and inspect what the GUI code is doing. Testing the application is expensive because it s nearly impossible to write tests. For example, it s possible to write the tests for the class TranslateToGerman. What isn t testable using a simple script is whether the method button1_Click is implemented correctly. GUI-based tests are time consuming and difficult to decipher for correctness. The example code will work and could be good enough for a beta or release candidate. It might even be good enough for version 1.0. One of the key concepts of refactoring to patterns is that you refactor when you need to. It s part of the overall test-driven development process. Sometimes when code is refactored, the resulting source code is considered more complicated than the original source code. What is gained from the refactored code is testability, robustness, maintainability, and extendability. A major problem in the software industry is that the time to fix bugs and time required to extend an application isn t factored into the overall calculation. Consider the building of a bridge. If a bridge that was cheaper to build but more expensive to maintain were compared to a more expensive bridge that is cheaper to maintain, the engineer wouldn t blindly choose one over the other. The engineer would do an overall calculation and then consider the winner. Often software developers don t do this when they need to weigh the consequences of each.
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