birt barcode open source CONTACT SENSORS in Font

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CHAPTER 4 CONTACT SENSORS
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Figure 4-5. NXT-G Surfboard game
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Switches
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Switches are the workhorses of the input world. Figure 4-6 shows just a few examples of what switches look like. People turn switches on all the time to make things happen. If a room is too dark, you turn on a light with a switch. The vast majority of automated electrical control is also done with switches that change state with temperature, pressure, humidity, weight, liquid level, position, or practically anything else you can imagine. If the temperature is too cold, turn on the heat with a thermostatic switch.
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Figure 4-6. Examples of switches: pressure, temperature, rotary, 2 micro, push button, and key The humble wall switch like the one in Figure 4-7 is the easiest place to start. Sure, it s overkill to use a switch capable of controlling about a thousand times the current of an NXT, but they are dirt cheap and simple to hook up. The nice thing about this type of toggle switch is that, unlike the LEGO Touch Sensor, it stays however you set it. Just connect one wire to each screw and you re ready to go.
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Figure 4-7. Wall switch
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CHAPTER 4 CONTACT SENSORS
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Parallel and Series
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Sometimes you need more than four contact sensors for a project, but the NXT only has four inputs. In 13, we ll cover ways to expand the number of NXT sensor inputs, but for now let s look at some simple ways to connect multiple switches to the same input. If you connect more than one switch to the same input by connecting them in parallel as shown in Figure 4-8, then when any switch is turned on the NXT input is considered to be on. You can use this for a vehicle with bumper switches located on all four sides. Touching any one of the bumpers triggers the same avoidance reaction. You could easily make this type of connection with the old RCX by just plugging multiple switches onto the same input. The NXT connectors don t allow this, so you have to do it with wire.
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Figure 4-8. Parallel switches on one input If the switches are connected in a series, as shown in Figure 4-9, then they must all be on to make the NXT input on. Typically this kind of circuit is used for applications in which a unanimous vote from multiple inputs is needed to cause some important thing to happen. For example, a switch located on the bottom of each foot of a robot dog is used to make sure it has all its feet firmly planted on the ground.
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Figure 4-9. Series switches on one input
Antenna Sensor
You can build an antenna sensor or feeler using the same principle as the Electronic Surfboard game. The antenna or whisker is made from an electric guitar D string. This type of string is a thin wire that has another steel wire wound around it to make it heaver. The A and E strings also work, but their wire is thicker and stiffer, which makes a slightly less-sensitive feeler. You can purchase a whole set of inexpensive guitar strings at music stores and even discount stores. One guitar string is long enough to make about five sensors. Figure 4-10 shows the NXT Quick Start Vehicle outfitted with two antenna sensors.
CHAPTER 4 CONTACT SENSORS
Figure 4-10. NXT Quick Start Vehicle with feelers The contact ring support is a type of Technic lift arm beam that isn t included with the NXT kit. You can get this part as the Technic Lever 3M, part number LFH101, from the online LEGO Shop. The ring is a 3/16-inch (4.76mm) brass eyelet shown in Figure 4-11. Normally they are used to reinforce a material such as fabric or leather, in which a lace or screw has to pass through it. You should be able to find them at hardware or craft supply stores.
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