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In the book Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology (The MIT Press, 1986), Valentino Braitenberg wrote about the dynamic behavior of several minimalistic vehicles. Despite their simple design and control, their behavior was often complex and unexpected. Figure 5-39 shows his vehicle number 2. It has two photo sensors in the front that point forward, and two motor-driven wheels in the rear. Model 2a s control is arranged so that the brighter the light shining on a photo sensor, the faster the motor turns on the same side. Model 2b has the control signals crossed.
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Figure 5-39. Braitenberg vehicles number 2a and 2b Vehicle number 2 is easy to reproduce with the NXT Quick Start Vehicle and two homebrew Light Sensors. The original NXT wheeled version is pictured in Figure 5-40, but you could also use the NXT2 Shooterbot. They can just hang down from the horizontal beam in the front, much like the feelers from 4.
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Figure 5-40. NXT Quick Start robot with Light Sensors The NXT-G program in Figure 5-41 is an endless loop that reads the two Light Sensors and adjusts the power to the two motors. Because the homebrew Light Sensor s Raw value decreases with increasing light level, the first Math block subtracts the Raw value from 1,000. This makes a value that s larger with brighter light. The second Math block divides the number by 10 to scale it into the 0-to-100 range used for the power input to the Motor block. All you need to change between the 2a and 2b vehicles programs is the motor designator letters B and C.
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Figure 5-41. Vehicle 2b NXT-G program Suppose that model 2a is in a dark room, and a bright light that s in front and to the right of the vehicle is turned on, as in Figure 5-42. The right photo sensor receives more light than the left, and therefore the right motor turns faster than the left. This causes the vehicle to go forward but turn to the left, avoiding the light source. The vehicle behaves as if it hates light.
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Figure 5-42. Vehicle 2a s hate light behavior Now suppose that model 2b is exposed to the same bright light, as in Figure 5-43. Again the right photo sensor receives more light than the left, but this time the left motor turns faster. This causes the vehicle to move forward but turn to the right, seeking the light source. The vehicle behaves as if it loves the light.
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Figure 5-43. Vehicle 2b s love light behavior
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Two-Switch Input
One problem with the parallel and series methods already covered is that you can t tell which switch is being operated. An easy way to make the switches identifiable is to put a unique resistor in series with them. Figure 5-44 shows the schematic diagram of the concept.
Figure 5-44. Two versions of the two-switch multiplexer Figure 5-45 shows the Raw values for all four possible switch combinations. If neither switch is closed, the NXT reads a Raw value of 1,023. If only switch one (SW1) is closed, the voltage divider is the 10k of the NXT and the 6.8k resistor. The NXT will read this as a Raw value of 414. If only switch two (SW2) is closed, the voltage divider has a 4.7k in place of the 6.8k, and this will be read as a Raw value of 327. Finally, if both switches are closed, then the voltage divider has the parallel combination of the 4.7k and 6.8k, which is 2.8k. This will be read as a Raw value of 222.
Figure 5-45. Values for the different combinations of switches
CHAPTER 5 RESISTIVE SENSORS
In theory, you could extend this concept to even more switches and resistors. However, the decoding process gets more complex, and the tolerance for variations in the resistors gets smaller. Besides, in 13 we ll really show you ways to expand the inputs. The values of the two resistors are important. If you use resistors that are too different, the Raw values won t end up in the right place for the decoding process to work. The 4.7k resistor is easy to get at Radio Shack in a package of five or in a big assortment kit. The 5% color code is yellow-blue-red-gold. The 6.8k (5% color code: green-violet-red-gold) resistor is harder to find. However, you can use another 4.7k and a 2.2k (5% color code: red-red-red-gold) in series to create a 6.9k resistor, and this will still work without any adjustments to the program.
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