birt barcode open source Figure 6-20. Inverted pendulum main program in Font

Generation QR-Code in Font Figure 6-20. Inverted pendulum main program

Figure 6-20. Inverted pendulum main program
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The control loop reads the current pot value and subtracts the original value X from it. This creates an angle error, and the amount of power delivered to the motor is dependent on this error multiplied by a gain. The value of this gain depends on a lot of factors beyond the scope of this book, but you need to play with it to get good stability.
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Joysticks
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Joysticks are great for manual and remote-control applications. You can combine two angle sensors in a simple gimbal mount to make a joystick. This is a good application for the 50k pot because its total angle of motion is only about 90 degrees.
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Bottom Mounted Joystick
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You can build a remote-control platform with the joystick on the bottom of the NXT, as shown in Figure 6-21. Building it on the bottom leaves the display and control buttons free for other things. For example, you can operate the joystick with one hand and push the buttons with the other. In 14 we ll show you how to use this joystick to remotely control another NXT using Bluetooth wireless communications.
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Figure 6-21. Joystick built on the bottom of the NXT
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The test program in Figure 6-22 allows you to check the operation of your joystick. You need to hold the NXT so you can see the display, but you re moving the joystick from behind. Moving the handle left and right should move the Aim image shown in Figure 6-23 back and forth on the display. Moving the handle up and down moves the image top to bottom on the display.
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Figure 6-22. Joystick test program
Figure 6-23. Joystick test display
Top Mounted Joystick for a Robot Arm
The T-56 Robot Arm project included with the original NXT kit is limited to preprogrammed movements. Plans for the arm can be found at links given in Appendix B, but it does require some parts not included with second generation NXTs. Adding a joystick control (see Figure 6-24) lets you swing and elevate the arm to any position you want. You can also program the left and right NXT buttons to open and close the jaw on command.
CHAPTER 6 POTENTIOMETER SENSORS
Figure 6-24. Front mounted joystick for the T-56 robot arm
The joystick gimbal for the front mount is the same as the back mount joystick. If it s mounted far enough above the NXT, the display and buttons are still accessible. Because the T-56 already makes use of input ports 1 and 3, the swing axis control has to be brought into port 2 and the elevation axis into port 4. The idle position of the joystick is recorded when the program first starts. These raw values are saved in variables C0 and B0, as shown in Figure 6-25. Then the program goes into a long endless loop of moving the two axes and checking whether the jaw should open or close.
Figure 6-25. T-56 program initialization
CHAPTER 6 POTENTIOMETER SENSORS
The control is exactly the same for both axes, as seen in Figures 6-26 and 6-27. The current value of the pot is read and subtracted from the initial position to create a motor power command. The direction of the command is determined by comparing the value to zero. Fortunately, the Motor block doesn t care if the power command is positive or negative; it just uses the size of the number.
Figure 6-26. First axis control
Figure 6-27. Second axis control
The jaw control part of the NXT-G program checks if the left or right NXT button has been pressed, as shown in Figure 6-28. A fixed 0.5s command is issued to the jaw motor that opens or closes it.
Figure 6-28. Jaw control
CHAPTER 7
Voltage Sensors
In 5, you learned that the NXT converts the voltage on a sensor input into a digital value. Until now, the only voltage being converted was the 5V supply inside the NXT or some part of it divided through an external resistor. It probably doesn t come as a big surprise that you can connect an external voltage to the input and have the NXT convert that instead.
Caution Never connect these voltage sensors to anything but low-voltage, battery-operated equipment.
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