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Connecting them to household electricity could be lethal both to you and the NXT.
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Design of a 5V to +5V Sensor
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Figure 7-1 shows a circuit diagram of the NXT input with a simple voltage sensor. The only component needed is a 10k resistor. The external voltage you ll measure is labeled as E on the circuit. Some examples should help you to understand how it works.
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Figure 7-1. 5V to +5V sensor circuit
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CHAPTER 7 VOLTAGE SENSORS
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First, assume that the external voltage E is 0V. That s the same as connecting the external 10k resistor across the input, as you ve been doing for the last three chapters. The NXT s 5V will be evenly divided between two 10k resistors. That means the voltage at the analog-to-digital converter will be 2.5V and it will be converted to a Raw value of about 512. This is the center point on Figure 7-2. Next, assume that the external voltage E is 5V. Now the input is being pulled up to 5V through 10k resistors both internally and externally. The input doesn t have any choice but to be 5V, which will be converted to a Raw value of 1,023. That is the top-right point in Figure 7-2. Finally, assume that the external voltage is 5V. The internal 10k resistor is pulling the input up to 5V, and the external 10k resistor is pulling the input down to 5V. That evenly matched tug-of-war results in 0V, which converts to a Raw value of 0 and is plotted as the lower-left point on Figure 7-2.
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Figure 7-2. Plot of external voltage and Raw value The following equation calculates the external voltage E knowing the measured Raw value: 2 Raw E= 1 5 1023
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The second-generation NXT software has floating-point arithmetic, but the integer arithmetic of the original NXT would really cause problems if you blindly tried to code this equation into a program.
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CHAPTER 7 VOLTAGE SENSORS
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Without a decimal point, the result of the first division would result in only 0, 1, or 2, which would be a very coarse measurement of voltage. The way around this problem is to scale up the numbers by 1,000 and make sure that you always multiply before you divide. After multiplying by 1,000, you end up with a smaller unit of voltage known as a millivolt, or mV:
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E= 10,000 Raw 5,000 1023
The program shown in Figure 7-3 is really intended for first-generation NXT software. It reads the input and passes the Raw value through the parts of the equation. The voltage, scaled by 1,000, is then displayed on the screen. You could add some additional blocks to display a decimal point, but that detail is left to you. If nothing is connected to the input, the display will read 5000, which is just the 5V supply internal to the NXT. A NXT2 version of the program would multiply only by 10, subtract only 5, and automatically show the value with a decimal point.
Figure 7-3. NXT 5V to +5V voltmeter program
Constructing the Voltage Sensor
Unlike the sensors in the previous chapters, you need to pay attention to which wire is connected to the black and which to the white. If you look carefully, one of the two 18-gauge (0.8mm2) speaker wires will have some kind of identification. For example, some speaker wire has a stripe painted on one side. Make the identified wire the one you connect to the black cable wire and it will become the terminal of your voltage sensor. Naturally, the other wire will become the + terminal. The best place to put the 10k resistor is at the junction between the NXT cable and the speaker wire. You can attach it using a terminal block, but soldering is more compact and permanent. Cut the speaker wire so that the wire to be connected to the black cable wire is about 1/4 inch (10mm) longer to compensate for the length of the resistor. It makes the assembly look much neater. Figure 7-4 shows all the parts except the heat shrink.
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