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LEDs produce light only when they are forward biased. That means the current needs to flow in the same direction as the arrow of the diode in the LED symbol. This also means the anode voltage must be positive with respect to the cathode. LEDs don t produce light when they are connected backward, or reverse biased. In fact, they can be damaged if the reverse voltage is greater than about 5V. Because the NXT output voltage polarity can be positive or negative, you must protect the LED with another diode to prevent it from being damaged this way. Figure 12-27 shows the circuit diagram of an LED output, and Figure 12-28 shows the assembly. The value of resistor R is computed using the equation, and the 1N4148 is a small diode used to protect the LED from reverse voltage. You could use a 1N4002, but the 1N4148 is smaller and more appropriate for the current in the LED. Hooking the white NXT cable wire to the resistor and the black to the LED cathode will make an LED that lights when the Motor block output is set to forward. Reversing the white and black connections will make an LED that lights when the Motor block is in reverse.
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Figure 12-27. Basic LED circuit
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Figure 12-28. LED assembly You can also use another LED in place of the 1N4148, as shown in the circuit in Figure 12-29. They can share the same series resistor if the LEDs are similar enough. Only one LED will light at a time: LED1 when the Motor block output is in forward and LED2 when it is in reverse.
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White
R LED2 LED1
Black
Figure 12-29. Two-LED circuit Use LEDs in the T13/4 package, which is about 5mm in diameter because they can be pushed partway into Technic holes for mounting, as in Figure 12-30.
Figure 12-30. T13/4 LEDs in Technic beam It s easier to create the parallel connection between the LEDs by bending one lead of each LED over to the other LED. Make sure that the LEDs are mounted with the cathode flat spot on opposite sides. This gives you two leads to connect to that are separated by enough distance that they won t easily touch and short. Figure 12-31 shows the parallel connection.
Figure 12-31. LEDs connected in parallel Figure 12-32 shows the addition of the series resistor.
CHAPTER 12 BEYOND LEGO MOTORS
Figure 12-32. Add common series resistor Finally, Figure 12-33 shows heat shrink covering the connections.
Figure 12-33. Heat shrink to insulate connections Assuming that executives make important decisions that are about as good as flipping a coin, you can make a contraption that makes yes/no decisions at the push of a button (see Figure 12-34). You make the yes/no indicator using the circuit shown in Figure 12-28, with one red and one green LED.
CHAPTER 12 BEYOND LEGO MOTORS
Figure 12-34. Green light on the left is a favorable decision The NXT-G program is shown in Figure 12-35. Pushing the center button on the NXT turns the output off, clearing the previous decision. When the button is released, the Random block picks a number 0 or 1, with equal probability. Depending on the number, the output is either turned on in forward or reverse, making the green/yes or the red/no light up. If you reduce the power level in the Motor block, you could also use two Christmas tree lights connected as shown in Figure 12-22.
Figure 12-35. Decision maker program
More Power
Relays are great for turning on and off equipment that requires power beyond the capability of the NXT. The NXT creates variable power by turning on and off the output thousands of times a second, but relays are way too slow to be operated this way. You can use a solid-state device known as a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) like a relay, but it can switch as fast as the NXT. Unlike relay contacts, the MOSFET conducts in only one direction, so it s useful only for DC applications.
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