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CHAPTER 12 BEYOND LEGO MOTORS
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One MOSFET Amplifier
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Figure 12-36 shows the basic N-channel MOSFET amplifier using the IRF510. The MOSFET is the complicated symbol in the center of the drawing. It has three leads: the gate, source, and drain. The diode in the symbol is usually not drawn for simplicity, but it s always a part of the device. When the voltage between the gate and source is greater than about 4V, the MOSFET will switch the connection between the drain and the source on. The 10k resistor prevents the gate voltage from floating around when it isn t connected to anything, and the 1N4002 is there to divert the power stored in the motor when it is turned off.
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1N4002
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+ 12V IRF510
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Figure 12-36. MOSFET unipolar amplifier circuit The IRF510 comes in the TO-220AB package shown in Figure 12-37. The drain is connected to both the center lead and the large flange. You can use a small screw and nut to turn the flange into a handy terminal for connecting the load. However, if you need for the IRF510 to carry more than about 2A, you ll need to attach a heat sink to the flange.
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Figure 12-37. MOSFET package
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CHAPTER 12 BEYOND LEGO MOTORS
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A terminal strip version of the MOSFET amplifier is shown in Figure 12-38. The drain lead is bent up and out of the way because the flange is used to make the connection. The wires to the load are soldered to the leads of the 1N4002 to make connecting easier. Make sure you have the cathode (end with the band) of the diode toward the positive power terminal.
Figure 12-38. MOSFET amplifier assembly built on a terminal strip Because you often need variable speed, motors are the natural application for the MOSFET amplifier. Figure 12-39 shows an automobile electric window motor connected to the amplifier. A variety of motors such as this are used in automobiles for power equipment and windshield wipers. They are geared down much like the NXT motor, but they often use a worm gear that locks the shaft when the motor isn t turning.
Figure 12-39. MOSFET amplifier controlling an automotive electric window motor
CHAPTER 12 BEYOND LEGO MOTORS
Bipolar MOSFET Amplifier
You can vary motor speed with the one MOSFET amplifier, but not the direction. This can be a serious shortcoming for vehicle designs for which you need to go both forward and reverse. Extending the design to control both speed and direction requires the more complicated bipolar amplifier shown in Figure 12-40.
White
14 13 16
5 6 7 8
12 11 10
R1 M1
Q1 D1 D3
R3 M3 + 12V
2 Black 1
M2 M3 U1
M4 M1 M2 D2
Q2 D4 Q4
M4 R4
Figure 12-40. Bipolar amplifier Table 12-2 shows the bill of materials. Table 12-2. Bill of Materials
Component
Q1, Q3 Q2, Q4 R1 R4 R5 U1 D1 D4
Part Number
IRF9530PBF IRF520NPBF 330 Ohm 100 Ohm PS2501-4 STTH2R06RL
Description
P Chan MOSFET N Chan MOSFET 1/2 W Resistor 1/4 W Resistor NEC Quad Opto-isolator Fast Recovery Rectifier Diode
Digi-Key
IRF9530PBF-ND IRF520NPBF-ND PPC330BCT-ND P100CACT-ND PS2501-4A-ND 497-4409-1-ND
The heart of the design is the H-bridge made from four MOSFETs. You can see the H pattern where the motor symbol M is in the middle of the horizontal line of the letter H. The upper MOSFETs Q1 and Q3 are P-channel; the lowers Q2 and Q4 are N-channel like the IRF510. P-channel MOSFETs work like their N-channel brothers, but have a negative gate voltage. The arrow in the gate part of the symbol is reversed to differentiate it from the N-channel. You use the MOSFETs in pairs to connect either the positive voltage or ground to either end of the motor. The forward pair is Q1 and Q4, and the reverse is Q3 and Q2. U1 is an opto-isolator that contains four LEDs and four phototransistors. When the light from an LED shines on a corresponding phototransistor, it turns on. The LEDs are cleverly arranged to turn on the right pairs of MOSFETS to preserve the polarity of the NXT output voltage.
CHAPTER 12 BEYOND LEGO MOTORS
You should first build the bipolar amplifier on a solderless prototype board, and then transfer the working design over to a matching prototype PCB. Figure 12-41 shows the first step in populating the prototype board.
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