how to generate barcode in vb.net 2008 Using the query API and JPQL to retrieve entities in Java

Creation Data Matrix in Java Using the query API and JPQL to retrieve entities

Using the query API and JPQL to retrieve entities
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Here is an example of a subquery demonstrating the ALL operator:
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SELECT c FROM Category c WHERE c.createDate >= ALL (SELECT i.createDate FROM Item i WHERE i.user = c.user)
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If we include the ALL predicate, the subquery returns true if all the results retrieved by the subquery meet the condition; otherwise, the expression returns false. In our example the subquery returns false if any item in the subquery has a createDate later than the createDate for the category in the main query. As the name suggests, if we use ANY or SOME, the expression returns true if any of the retrieved results meet the query condition. We can use ANY in a query as follows:
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SELECT c FROM Category c WHERE c.createDate >= ANY (SELECT i.createDate FROM Item i WHERE i.seller = c.user)
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SOME is just an alias (or a synonym) for ANY, and can be used anywhere ANY can
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be used.
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10.3.9 Joining entities
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If you ve used relational databases and SQL, you must have some experience with the JOIN operator. You can use JOIN to create a Cartesian product between two entities. Normally you provide a WHERE clause to specify the JOIN condition between entities instead of just creating a Cartesian product. You have to specify the entities in the FROM clause to create a JOIN between two or more entities. The two entities are joined based either on their relationships or any arbitrary persistence fields. When two entities are joined, you may decide to retrieve results that match the JOIN conditions. For example, suppose we join Category and Item using the relationships between them and retrieve only entities that match the JOIN condition. Such joins are known as inner joins. Conversely, suppose we need to retrieve results that satisfy the JOIN conditions but also include entities from one side of the domain that don t have matching entities on the other side. For example, we may want to retrieve all instances of Category even if there is no matching instance of Item. This type of join is called an outer join. Note that an outer join can be left, right, or both.
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Let s first look at some examples of different types of inner joins. Then we ll see examples of joins based on arbitrary persistence fields and relationships, and finally we ll look at outer joins and fetch joins. Theta-joins Theta-joins are not very common, and are based on arbitrary persistence or association fields in the entities being joined, rather than the relationship defined between them. For example, in the ActionBazaar system we have a persistence field named rating that stores the rating for a Category. The values for rating include DELUXE, GOLD, STANDARD, and PREMIUM. We also have a persistence field named star that we use to store a star rating for an Item; the values for star also include DELUXE, GOLD, STANDARD, and PREMIUM. Assume that both persistence fields store some common values in these fields, such as GOLD, and we want to join these two entities based on the rating and star fields of Category and Item, respectively. To accomplish this, we use this query:
SELECT i FROM Item i, Category c WHERE i.star = c.rating
Although this type of join is less common in applications, it cannot be ruled out. Relationship joins A more common situation in applications is the need to join two or more entities based on their relationships. Here is the syntax for INNER JOIN:
[INNER] JOIN join_association_path_expression [AS] identification_variable
In ActionBazaar, Category and User entities have a many-to-one association. To retrieve all users that match a specific criterion we could try this query:
SELECT u FROM User u INNER JOIN u.Category c WHERE u.userId LIKE 1 The INNER clause is optional.
Remember that when you use the JOIN operator by itself, an inner join is always performed. Now let s move to the other end of the spectrum: outer joins. Outer joins Outer joins allow you to retrieve additional entities that do not match the JOIN conditions when associations between entities are optional. Outer joins are
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