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JNDI as a component registry
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If you want to learn more about RMI, check out http://java.sun.com/products/ jdk/rmi/.
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A.2 JNDI as a component registry
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JNDI is the JDBC of naming and directory services. Just as JDBC provides a standard Java EE API to access all kinds of databases, JNDI standardizes naming and directory service access. If you ve ever used a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) such as a Microsoft Active Directory server, you already know what a naming and directory service is. In simple terms, a naming service provides the ability to locate a component or service by name. You give a naming service the complete name for a resource and it figures out how to get you a handle to the resource that you can use. Domain Name Service (DNS) is a relatively well-known example of a naming service. When we point our web browser to http://yahoo.com, the DNS server conducts a lookup and directs us to the right IP address for Yahoo. The RMI registry is another example of a naming service. In a sense, even an operating system file manager is a naming service. You give the file manager the complete path to a file and it gives you a handle to the file you are looking for. As figure A.2 shows, JNDI provides a uniform abstraction over a number of different naming services such as LDAP, DNS, Network Information Service (NIS), Novell Directory Services (NDS), RMI, Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), and so on. Once you have an instance of a JNDI context, you can use it to locate resources in any underlying naming service available to the context. Under the hood, JNDI negotiates with each available naming service given the name of a resource to figure out where to look up the service s actual location.
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Figure A.2 JNDI provides a single unified API to access various naming services such as LDAP, NDS, NDS, NIS, RMI, and CORBA. Any naming service with a JNDI Service Provider Interface (SPI) provider can be plugged into the API seamlessly.
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APPENDIX A
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Figure A.3 An example JNDI tree for an application server. All global resources such as jdbc and jms are bound to the root context of JNDI tree. Each application has its own application context, and EJBs and other resources in the application are bound under the application context.
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Like RMI, JNDI plays a vital role in EJB 3, although it is by and large hidden behind the scenes (also like RMI, JNDI used to be a lot more visible and made EJB much more cumbersome as of EJB 2). In a very real sense, JNDI is to EJB what the RMI registry is to RMI. JNDI is used as the central repository for resources managed by the container. As a result, every bean managed by the container is automatically registered with JNDI. In addition, a typical container JNDI registry will store JDBC data sources, JMS queues, JMS connection factories, JPA entity managers, JPA entity manager factories, and so on. Whenever a client (such as an EJB) needs to use a managed resource, they use JNDI to look up the resource by its unique name. Figure A.3 shows how a typical JNDI tree for a Java EE application server might look. As you can see in figure A.3, resources are stored in a JNDI tree in a hierarchical manner. This means that JNDI resource names look much like Unix file pathnames (they also sometimes start with a protocol specification such as java:, much like a URL address you would enter in a browser navigation bar). As with RMI, once you procure a handle to a resource from a JNDI context, you can use it as though it were a local resource. To use a resource stored in the JNDI context, a client has to initialize the context and look up the resource. Despite the robustness of the JNDI mechanism itself, the code to do so isn t that intimidating. The code in listing A.1 looks up a JDBC data source from JNDI and creates a new connection from it. As you might imagine, the JDBC connection then might be used to issue SQL to the underlying database pointed to by the retrieved data source.
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