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JNDI as a component registry
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Listing A.1 Looking up a JDBC data source using JNDI
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Context context = new InitialContext(); DataSource dataSource = (DataSource)context.lookup("java:comp/env/jdbc/ActionBazaarDS"); Connection connection = dataSource.getConnection(); Statement statement = connection.createStatement();
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In listing A.1, the JNDI lookup takes place in the first two lines. First, an InitialContext object is instantiated. The InitialContext object connects to any given JNDI tree. In the case of the parameter-less version of the constructor used in listing A.1, the InitialContext object connects to the default JNDI tree. The JNDI defaults are determined by the contents of a file named that can be stored anywhere in the JVM s CLASSPATH. The Java EE application server usually provides this properties file, and the settings in the file typically point to the JNDI tree of the local application server. As a result, the default InitialContext constructor is most useful while looking up resources within the same JVM. If you are looking up a resource (such as an EJB) on a remote application server, then you must feed environment properties to the InitialContext constructor. This can be done as follows:
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Properties properties = new Properties(); properties.put(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY, "oracle.j2ee.rmi.RMIInitialContextFactory"); properties.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL, "ormi://"); properties.put(Context.SECURITY_PRINCIPAL, "oc4jadmin"); properties.put(Context.SECURITY_CREDENTIALS, "welcome1"); Context context = new InitialContext(properties);
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In the example, the custom Properties entries specify that we are trying to connect to a remote Oracle application server JNDI tree. Note JNDI connection properties are vendor (application server) specific and our example cannot be used universally, so you should consult with your application server s documentation to see how you can connect to it remotely. In general, you might find that most application servers require a common set of JNDI properties defined as constants in the Context interface. Table A.1 summarizes the most common environment properties that are used for Java EE application servers. Note that instead of providing environment properties programmatically, you can also simply modify the file in your runtime CLASSPATH. If you are using EJB 3 DI, this is the only way of connecting to a remote server.
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Table A.1 Common JNDI environment properties required for creating an initial context to connect to a remote JNDI service provider in a Java EE environment. These are specified either as system properties in the file in the JVM at the client side or as Property object entries passed to the constructor in your Java code. Of these options, a properties file is recommended as it improves maintainability of your application code. Property Name java.naming.factory. initial Description The name of the factory class that will be used to create the context The URL for the JNDI service provider The username or identity for authenticating the caller in the JNDI service provider The password for the username/principal being used for authentication Example Value oracle.j2ee.rmi. RMIInitialContextFactory
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java.naming. provider.url principal
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ormi://localhost:23791/ chapter1 oc4jadmin credentials
In the second line of listing A.1, the lookup is performed using the context instantiated in the first line. The single parameter of the lookup method is the full name of the resource you are seeking. In our case, the JNDI name of the JDBC data source we are looking for happens to be jdbc/ActionBazaarDS. Note that because the lookup method returns the Object type, we must cast the retrieved resource to the correct type. In the case of EJBs, references returned by JNDI must be cast to a valid business interface implemented by the EJB. While the code in listing A.1 looks harmless, don t be taken in by appearances. JNDI lookups were one of the primary causes for EJB 2 s complexity. First of all, you had to do lookups to access any resource managed by the container, even if you were only accessing data sources and EJBs from other EJBs located in the same JVM. Given that most EJBs in an application depend on other EJBs and resources, imagine the lines of repetitive JNDI lookup code littered across an average business application! To make matters worse, JNDI names of resources aren t always that obvious to figure out, especially for resources that are bound to the environment naming context (which must use the arcane java:comp/env/ prefix for portability of applications instead of using a global JNDI name). The good news is that except for certain corner cases, you won t have to deal with the evils of JNDI in EJB 3. EJB 3 puts the mechanical details of JNDI lookups well hidden behind metadata-based DI. DI does such a great job in abstraction
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