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y now, it should be obvious that to really make the most of Ajax, you re going to need to write some JavaScript. Frameworks and toolkits can ease some of the burden, but in the end, you ll probably have more JavaScript than normal. Having written a fair amount of JavaScript ourselves, we know this can be daunting, but in this chapter we ll put a few more arrows in your quiver. Specifically, we ll introduce test-driven development (TDD) and show how you can apply it to JavaScript. While this approach won t instantly solve all your coding problems, it should at least help you get home in time to eat dinner with your family. We ll start with a brief overview of TDD and the ubiquitous JUnit. Once we have established the foundation, we ll discuss JsUnit and show how you can write and run tests.
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If you ve done any amount of work with Web applications, you ve probably had to write some JavaScript; of course, if you ve written anything more than the simplest of functions, your opinion of JavaScript might not be too high. Browser incompatibilities, a lack of decent development tools, no code completion, and no debuggers it s enough to make most developers long for vi.1 We know your pain. In 5, we discussed a number of tools to make your life easier. In this chapter, we ll show how to make developing JavaScript as easy as possible (at least until the tool vendors catch up2). By writing your JavaScript in the test-first manner, you can greatly simplify the entire process.
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Yeah, we can hear you now I write tests, just before the product ships. Some of you are snickering and saying something about the quality assurance department. Still others have project managers who have said something along the lines of, We can t waste time writing tests; we need to write real code. So, what does it mean to practice TDD TDD rose out of the agile development movement, specifically extreme programming (XP), where it is a central principle. Rather than write your tests when you are done, often as an afterthought, TDD practitioners write the tests before they write any code. In essence, the
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1. OK, so for some of you, vi is obvious, but c mon, even you ve got to have issues with JavaScript! 2. We fully expect the major tool vendors will solve this problem in the near future. 161
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tests serve as the design document rather than spending considerable time fighting a complex diagramming tool, you sketch the class directly in the code. You begin by writing a test for some small piece of functionality. Depending on the language, your test may not even compile yet because you reference a class that doesn t yet exist. Once you have established your test, you run it (and, yes, it will fail). You then write the smallest amount of code that will allow your test to pass. At this point, you refactor your code and add more tests. Typically, you use a testing framework to help you write automated tests. The most famous of these frameworks is JUnit, though now a number of xUnit projects simplify creating tests in a number of languages. In general, these frameworks work on an assert basis. Developers write test methods that compare the actual result from invoking a method against an expected result. Of course, you could perform these comparisons by manually inspecting a log file or the user interface, but unlike humans, computers are fast and accurate at performing data comparison. Further, computers don t get bored when they ve run the same test 1,500 times. JUnit and its peers make writing and running tests relatively simple. This encourages developers to create a large number of tests (most likely leading to good test coverage) and run those tests often (helping developers find bugs must faster). In many cases, projects that incorporate TDD will have as much test code as production code! Practicing TDD provides a number of important benefits: Offers a clear end: You know when you re done when the tests pass, your work is complete (assuming you wrote good tests). Tests create a natural boundary around your code that helps you focus on the task at hand. Once your tests pass, you have tangible proof that your code works. Running automated tests in an xUnit framework is orders of magnitude faster than manually testing the user interface or comparing results in a log file. Most xUnit tests run in a matter of milliseconds, and most practitioners run their tests several times a day. In many shops, a successful pass through the test suite is required to check code into the source tree. Provides documentation: How often have you encountered code that you just couldn t understand The code probably doesn t have any documentation, and the developer who wrote the code is long since gone (or on vacation). Of course, you re often exposed to this code at 3 a.m. or when some vice president is screaming for a fix yesterday, making it that much harder to take the time to figure out what the author meant. Good unit tests serve as system documentation, and they also show you exactly what the system does most documentation we ve encountered says what the system is supposed to do. Tests are like breadcrumbs left by the initial developer that show you how their classes actually work. Improves design: Writing tests improves your designs. Tests help you think in terms of your interface the test framework is just another client of the code. The tests help you think simply. If you really do follow the principle of do the simplest thing that works, you won t find yourself with pages of complex algorithms. Code written to be tested often has fewer dependencies and is more decoupled since this makes it easier to test. Of course, it also has the added side effect of being easier to change! Encourages refactoring: With a robust test suite, you are free to refactor at will. How often have you encountered code that you were hesitant to change Fear makes you move slowly and conservatively since you can t be sure your changes won t break the system. With a good unit test suite, you can refactor mercilessly while keeping your code clean.
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