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CHAPTER 20 DIRECTORY COPYING
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In its application memory, the cp command keeps track of files that contain a link count greater than one. This works fine for relatively small copies, but has the potential downside that during execution the process could run out of memory and fail because of an excessive number of hard links that need caching.
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One possible alternative to the cp command is tar. tar was originally intended for backup tape archives, but it has the ability to send its output to stdout and to receive stdin as input.
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tar cvf - * | (cd /dest/dir && tar xvfp -)
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Thus, you can create a tar archive with the c option (create; often used with v for verbose and f for file) and use the - switch to send output to stdout through a pipe. On the other end of the pipe you have to attach a succession of commands: first a cd to take you to the intended destination directory, and second an extracting tar command that receives the data stream via stdin and then saves the files to the intended target. This tar command is combined with the first tar command prior to the pipe by using the shortcircuit && operator to make its execution dependent on the success of the cd. With this method the files are copied correctly, and hard links and their modification times are preserved. Soft links still have the date of archive extraction as the creation date, instead of the creation date of the original link that was being copied. The main problem with this command is that the wild card * does not capture all files hiding in the source directory. It will miss dot (or hidden) files. I have seen examples where regular expressions are used to gather all files, but there is another way.
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Replacing the wild card that gathers all the files in the source directory with a find command is a simple way of retrieving all files and directories.
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find . -depth | xargs tar cvf - | (cd ../tar_cp/ && tar xvfp -)
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The -depth option minimizes permission problems with directories that are not writable or not searchable; you can deal with the latter by processing a directory s contents before the directory itself. The list of files found by recursively searching the source directory is then passed to the tar command via xargs. The rest of the command is the same as in the previous example. This command pipeline will not only copy directories from one location on an individual machine to another, but also copy files across the network using ssh. Simply add the ssh command to the pipeline, and the files will arrive at the correct place.
CHAPTER 20 DIRECTORY COPYING
find . -depth | xargs tar cvf - | \ ssh machine_name 'cd /dest ; mkdir dir ; cd dir ; tar xvfp -'
Note In the example I create the destination directory prior to extracting the archive. This can also be performed using rsh instead of ssh, but I wouldn t recommend it because rsh is not an encrypted protocol and is therefore vulnerable to interception.
If you are more familiar with cpio than with tar, you may want to use the following command, which is the equivalent of the combination of find and tar:
find . -depth | cpio -dampv {/dest/dir}
The modification times of destination soft links and directories are still set to the time when the command was run. The options to cpio used here are as follows: -d creates directories as needed, -a resets the access time of the original files, -m preserves the modification time of the new files, and -v lists the files being processed to keep you apprised of the command s progress. The most important option here is -p. This switch puts cpio into a copy pass-through mode, which acts like a copying operation as opposed to an archive creation. This is somewhat like the tar create piped to tar extract tar cvf - * | (cd /dest/dir && tar xvfp -) command example presented earlier, but it achieves its goal with only one command. As with tar, you can combine cpio with ssh and copy files across a network connection to another machine.
find . -depth | ssh machine_name 'cpio -dampv /dest/dir'
The main concern is to ensure that the destination directory exists. You could add directory-creation commands to the ssh command line as shown earlier in this chapter, so that you won t have the archive files incorrectly dumped in the destination s parent directory.
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