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CHAPTER 24 TEXT-PROCESSING ONE-LINERS
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random-number generator using the seed value passed to it as an argument. If the seed expression is left out (as in the example here), the time of day is the default value used for the seed. For testing purposes, you may want to remove the srand() function from the code so the random number returned won t be random, but rather predictable.
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echo | awk '{srand(); print int(100 * rand())}'
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Generating Random Numbers from the Shell
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Both bash and ksh have the ability to generate random numbers. There is a built-in shell variable called RANDOM that you can use for this purpose. This variable will generate a random integer between 0 and 32767 every time it is accessed.
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echo $RANDOM
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Displaying Character-Based Fields with sed
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awk is very good at displaying fields separated by whitespace or by specific delimiters. It is more challenging to extract a specific character or range of characters from a string whose length you don t know. You could find the length of the string with awk and then use the cut command to grab specific characters, but that requires more than one command. The same result can be achieved more simply by using sed. You can use sed to split strings based on character patterns rather than fields. A pattern describes the elements into which the string will be split. These elements are represented by parentheses containing one or more dots (.), which stand for single characters. Each element in the pattern corresponds to a field in the input string when it is split. The possible elements are shown here: (.): One character (.*): An arbitrary number of characters (...): Here, three consecutive characters; in general, as many consecutive characters as there are dots The split instruction consists of two parts separated by forward slashes (/) before and after. The first part is the pattern and the second specifies the field or fields from the string that should be displayed. When sed is invoked, the entire split instruction, including the pattern, is quoted and the parentheses in the pattern are escaped with backslashes (\). The following examples clarify this technique. In the first example, the first element in the pattern specifies an arbitrary number of characters leading up to the second, final element. The second element consists of a single character. The dollar sign ($) used here signifies the end of line or, in this case, the end of the input string. The output is the
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CHAPTER 24 TEXT-PROCESSING ONE-LINERS
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second field of the input string. Thus this command prints the last two characters in the input string. In our case, this is the last character of the phrase and the period at the end of the sentence.
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echo $VAR | sed 's/\(.*\)\(..\)$/\2/'
Here s the output:
The second example has three elements in the pattern. The first consists of the first four characters in the string. The second consists of all characters apart from the first four, leading up to the final element. The third element consists of the last three characters in the string. The first and third elements are then printed. Note that the fourth character in the output is a space.
echo $VAR | sed 's/\(....\)\(.*\)\(...\)$/\1\3/'`
Here s the output:
The og.
Escaping Special Characters
You have seen several occasions in which special characters had to be escaped because they were not to be evaluated using their normal meanings. This occurs frequently in sed operations, particularly replacements. These replacements can be somewhat tricky because of all the backslashes and forward slashes. The next few examples show the code for several replacement operations. The code works within a script, but because of the way the shell evaluates escape characters, the code will not work from the command line in case you want to test the code manually. There are two possibilities for most of these examples. The first uses escapes to search for and replace the special characters. The second uses square brackets ([ and ]) to specify the character in the search.
Note This option doesn t always work, such as when searching for a square bracket or an escape character itself. See 25 for another method of escaping special characters.
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