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CHAPTER 10 TESTING SPRING MVC APPLICATIONS
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public void testOK() throws Exception { request.setMethod("POST"); request.addParameter("id", "1"); mockAccountService.expects(once()) .method("activateAccount") .with(eq(new Long(1))); ModelAndView mav = controller.handleRequest(request, response); assertNotNull(mav); assertEquals("success", mav.getViewName()); } public void testMissingAccountPropogatesException() throws Exception { request.setMethod("POST"); request.addParameter("id", "1"); mockAccountService.expects(once()) .method("activateAccount") .with(eq(new Long(1))) .will(throwException(new AccountNotFoundException(1L))); try { controller.handleRequest(request, response); fail("Should have propogated the AccountNotFoundException"); } catch (AccountNotFoundException e) { // ok } }
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Testing Controllers Summary
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Testing Controllers is a natural component of a full suite of unit tests for your system. Controllers written for Spring MVC are easily testable because their dependencies are set via Dependency Injection, and in general they do not require any facilities from a running container. The framework code is easily stubbed or mocked so that tests can be written and verified quickly. The Spring Framework provides a rich set of testing stubs inside spring-mock.jar, including classes to make writing unit tests for web components very simple. These Servlet API stubs are not specific to Spring, so you may find them useful for any tests you create for your web components. When testing components such as Controllers, you should create mock objects for dependent objects such as the service layer. Above all, testing web components should not be any different than testing your domain object model. A combination of stubs and mocks can make writing and running unit tests for Controllers simple, effective, and productive.
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CHAPTER 10 TESTING SPRING MVC APPLICATIONS
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Unit Test Summary
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Unit tests are meant to be created quickly and run quickly, providing you with a safety net for eventual refactorings and helping to design a simpler system. Writing tests for the obvious situations isn t enough; make sure to consider the edge cases of the code and to test all logic branches and exceptional conditions. A code coverage utility can help in tracking which code is actually tested. It s important to view the list of unit test tenets not as hard and fast rules, but as guidelines to help you write the most effective unit tests possible. The important elements of unit tests, running fast and independently, should permeate all the tests you create. Remember that unit tests are written by you, for you. Keep them easy to create and easy to run, and they will continue to be useful for you. We recommend that unit tests should be created as early as possible, ideally concurrently with the module s creation. Using mock objects will isolate the class under test to ensure that external variables are removed from the test. Mock objects also allow a unit test to run without the presence of the dependency so that the test can run quickly and without risk of affecting the outside world. Mocks are also a very good way, and sometimes the only way, to test how your code will react when the dependency behaves under edge cases or in unexpected ways. Spring provides stubs for easy testing with J2EE APIs such as the Servlet API. You should use these classes, such as MockHttpServletRequest and MockHttpServletResponse, when writing tests for Controllers or other web components. These stubs are very easy to use, and make writing tests for Controllers as easy as testing any other Java class. As with writing all other unit tests, when testing Controllers be sure to adhere to the principles of run fast and zero external configuration. Some test situations and scenarios, however, simply do not fit into the criteria for a unit test. If you find you need to write tests that test the interaction between components, you are writing what is called an integration test. We will discuss integration tests throughout the rest of the chapter. Let s define them now.
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We have painted a picture of unit tests as fast, small, lightweight tests that are quick to write and run. Unit tests are designed to test the smallest elements of your system, isolating each element and module from the rest of the system. These types of tests not only help ensure correctness for your system, but also help direct the design of your code that is, your code needs to become modular if unit tests can be written effectively in the first place. Unit tests are excellent for the components of the system that comprise the business logic. However, there is a lot of code in the system that isn t necessarily business logic, usually in the form of database interaction code (the DAOs). Testing these components can quickly break the rules that we try to follow for unit tests. For example, a unit test shouldn t interact with external systems such as the database, but how are you supposed to test your DAO classes Also, a unit test should test a component in isolation, but how are you supposed to test that your entire system is wired together properly inside the ApplicationContext Enter integration tests: tests written with the same testing framework as your unit tests, but created specifically to test the interaction between the components of your system. Integration tests look a lot like unit tests, but they differ on their scope and intention. We re also
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