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CHAPTER 1 s DISTRIBUTED ARCHITECTURE
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logical architecture to run on various client and server machines. The goal of a good physical architecture is to achieve the best trade-off between performance, scalability, security, and fault tolerance within your specific environment. The trade-offs in a physical architecture for a smart client application are very different from those for a web application. A Windows application will typically trade performance against scalability, and a web application will typically trade performance against security. In this book, I ll be using a 5-layer logical architecture consisting of presentation, UI, business logic, data access, and data storage. Later in the book, this architecture will be used to create Windows, web, and Web Services applications, each with a different physical architecture. The next chapter will start the process of designing the framework that will make this possible.
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CHAPTER
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Framework Design
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n 1, I discussed some general concepts about physical and logical n-tier architecture, including a 5-layer model for describing systems logically. In this chapter, I ll take that 5-layer logical model and expand it into a framework design. Specifically, this chapter will map the logical layers against the technologies illustrated in Figure 2-1.
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Figure 2-1. Mapping the logical layers to technologies
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The framework itself will focus on the Business Logic and Data Access layers. This is primarily due to the fact that there are already powerful technologies for building Windows, web (browser-based and Web Services), and mobile UIs and presentations. Also, there are already powerful data-storage options available, including SQL Server, Oracle, DB2, XML documents, and so forth. Recognizing that these preexisting technologies are ideal for building the Presentation and UI layers, as well as for handling data storage, allows business developers to focus on the parts of the application that have the least technological support, where the highest return on investment occurs through reuse. Analyzing, designing, implementing, testing, and maintaining business logic is incredibly expensive. The more reuse achieved, the lower long-term application costs become. The easier it is to maintain and modify this logic, the lower costs will be over time.
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CHAPTER 2 s FRAMEWORK DESIGN
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s Note
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This is not to say that additional frameworks for UI creation or simplification of data access are bad ideas. On the contrary, such frameworks can be very complementary to the ideas presented in this book; and the combination of several frameworks can help lower costs even further.
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When I set out to create the architecture and framework discussed in this book, I started with the following set of high-level guidelines: Simplify the task of creating object-oriented applications in a distributed .NET environment. The Windows, web, and Web Services interface developer should never see or be aware of SQL, ADO.NET, or other raw data concepts, but should instead rely on a purely objectoriented model of the problem domain. Business object developers should be able to use natural coding techniques to create their classes that is, they should employ everyday coding using fields, properties, and methods. Little or no extra knowledge should be required. The business classes should provide total encapsulation of business logic, including validation, manipulation, calculation, security, and data access. Everything pertaining to an entity in the problem domain should be found within a single class. It should be relatively easy to create code generators, or templates for existing codegeneration tools, to assist in the creation of business classes. Provide an n-layer logical architecture that can be easily reconfigured to run on one to four physical tiers. Use complex features in .NET but those should be largely hidden and automated (remoting, serialization, security, deployment, and so forth). The concepts present in version 1.x of the framework from the .NET 1.x Framework should carry forward, including object-undo capabilities, broken rule tracking, and object-state tracking (IsNew, IsDirty, IsDeleted). In this chapter, I ll focus on the design of a framework that allows business developers to make use of object-oriented design and programming with these guidelines in mind. Having walked through the design of the framework, s 3 through 5 will dive in and implement the framework itself, focusing first on the parts that support UI development, and then on providing scalable data access and object-relational mapping for the objects. Before I get into the design of the framework, however, let s discuss some of the specific goals I was attempting to achieve.
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