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types. These types include ArrayList, Queue, Stack, SortedList, and HashTable. All these collections can be used to manage elements of type System::Object^. When you use these collections with concrete types, downcasts are necessary. These casts are either dangerous (static_cast) or expensive (safe_cast). When the element types for these collections are value types, using these collections also implies a lot of boxing and unboxing. Version 2.0 of the FCL also contains the namespace System::Collections::Generic with typed collection classes. These classes are based on generics, a template-like .NET feature that allows you to define and use parameterized types. As an example, there is a type List that represents a typed list of a dynamic size. The following code uses the read-only List<Person^> property to establish a one-to-n relationship: using namespace System; using namespace System::Collections::Generic; public ref class Person { List<Person^>^ friends; public: Person() : friends(gcnew List<Person^>()) {} property String^ Name; property int Age; property List<Person^>^ Friends { // since Friends is a read-only property, it can't be a trivial property List<Person^>^ get() { return friends; } } }; int main() { Person^ george = gcnew Person(); george->Name = "George "; george->Age = 26; Person^ johnny = gcnew Person(); johnny->Name = "Johnny "; johnny->Age = 33; george->Friends->Add(johnny); Console::WriteLine(george->Friends->Count); }
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To retrieve elements from a collection, you can either use the for each construct, as follows: List<Person^>^ friends = george->Friends; for each (Person^ p in friends) DoSomethingWithPerson(p) or an array-like syntax, like so: List<Person^>^ friends = george->Friends; for (int i = 0; i < friends->Count; ++i) DoSomethingWithPerson(friends[i]); The for each iteration is possible because the type List implements the interface IEnumerable. You can find various implementations of this and related interfaces on the Web, so I won t add a further implementation here. An important constraint on the for each construct is that the elements are invariant, so you cannot modify them. For example, the following code compiles, but it does not modify the content of the list: List<Person^>^ friends = george->Friends; for each (Person^ p in friends) p = gcnew Person(); Using an array-like syntax on a List<Person^>^ is possible because the type List implements a so-called default indexed property. A default indexed property is the managed equivalent to the subscript operator (operator []). It is a property with the name default and additional arguments provided in squared brackets. If you want to implement your own collection class, you should consider supporting this feature, too. The following code shows a simple class that implements two overloads of a default indexed property: ref class PersonCollection { // internal data storage not relevant here public: property Person^ default[int] { Person^ get(int i) { // implementation of getter depends on internal storage } void set(int i, Person^ newValue) { // implementation of setter depends on internal storage } } // the second overload is a read-only property property Person^ default[String^] { Person^ get(String^ name) {
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// implementation of getter depends on internal storage } } }; Notice that the accessor methods have additional arguments analogous to the argument types specified within the square brackets of the property declaration.
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Visual C++, as well as other .NET languages integrated into the Visual Studio .NET IDE, have a sophisticated support for software development based on has-a relationships. Using designers, you can easily add a new field to a class by dragging an item from the Toolbox window (which contains a palette of available components) and dropping it onto the designer. In this context, Visual Studio and the FCL use the misleading term component. For most developers, a component is a deployable unit of executable code, like a .NET assembly, a COM server, or a Win32 DLL. In the context of Visual Studio, a component is a class that can be created with a designer or used by a designer. Visual C++ has designer support for general components as well as for Windows Forms UIs. To add a new component to your project, choose Add New Item from the Project menu, and then select Component Class from the Code category, as shown in Figure 5-4.
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