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CHAPTER 7 USING C++/CLI TO EXTEND VISUAL C++ PROJECTS WITH MANAGED CODE
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Step 1: Modifying Settings at the Project Level
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To migrate to managed compilation, you should start by modifying properties at the project level. Project-level properties are inherited by all project items (source files); however, for a project item, you can explicitly overwrite inherited settings. The very first setting that you should look at is the choice of the CRT variant. Figure 7-3 shows how you can find and modify this setting.
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Figure 7-3. Project properties As discussed previously, it is a requirement to ensure that the DLL variant of the CRT is used. Therefore, modifying this setting can require modifications of the linker settings, too. Typically, you choose /MDd for the debug configuration and /MD for the release configuration. In contrast to the CRT choice, all other settings for projects and project items that are mentioned here should be specified equally for the build and the release configuration (and all other configurations you may have defined in your solution). My personal preference is to turn off generation of debug symbols with information for Edit and Continue at the project level, too. It does not make sense to generate debug symbols with Edit and Continue information for any of the source files whether they are compiled to native or managed code. This extra information would be an overhead without benefit, because Edit and Continue is not supported for managed and mixed-code assemblies
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CHAPTER 7 USING C++/CLI TO EXTEND VISUAL C++ PROJECTS WITH MANAGED CODE
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neither in managed nor native debug sessions. To turn on the /Zi switch, open the project properties dialog, select the property Configuration Properties C/C++ General Debug Information Format, and set it to Program Database (/Zi). I do not recommend setting /clr or /clr:pure at the project level. To avoid unnecessary overhead, you should retain the native compilation model for all existing source files and add new files that are compiled to managed code. This minimizes the impact on your existing code, and can significantly reduce the overhead that comes with managed code, especially the overhead for metadata and JIT compilation.
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Step 2: Creating a Second Precompiled Header
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Before starting to write code that uses managed types and constructs, I recommend further preparation steps. If your project has a precompiled header (typically called stdafx.pch), you will not be able to use that one for files compiled to managed code. A source file can only use a precompiled header that was created with the same compilation model. Since stdafx.pch was created without any of the /clr switches, it can only be used by files compiled to native code. To create a second precompiled header, add a new source file to your project. Name it stdafx_clr.cpp. Add just one line of code to that file: #include "stdafx.h" Set the following properties for stdafx_clr.cpp: C/C++ Precompiled Headers Create/Use precompiled headers: Set this property to Create precompiled header /Yc. C/C++ Precompiled Headers Precompiled header file: Set this property to $(IntDir)\$(TargetName)_clr.pch. C/C++ Precompiled Headers Create/Use PCH Through file: Set this property to stdafx.h. C/C++ General Compile with CLR Support: Set this property to Common Language Runtime Support /clr. C/C++ Code Generation Basic Runtime Checks: Set this property to Default. C/C++ Code Generation Enable Minimal Rebuild: Set this property to No. C/C++ Code Generation Enable C++ Exceptions: Set this property to Yes with SEH exceptions /EHa. Again, make sure you specify these settings for debug, release, and any other configurations that you may have defined. When you expect that the managed code you intend to write needs other types than your native code, you may consider creating a stdafx_clr.h file to build the precompiled header. In this case, you have to modify the C/C++ Precompiled Headers Create/Use PCH Through file property to stdafx_clr.h.
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CHAPTER 7 USING C++/CLI TO EXTEND VISUAL C++ PROJECTS WITH MANAGED CODE
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Step 3: Building and Testing
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Your project is now configured to produce a mixed-code assembly. If you build a mixed-code EXE file and the linker property Configuration Properties Linker General Register Output is set to true, your project will fail with the following error message: Registering output... RegAsm : error RA0000 : Attempt to load an unverifiable executable with fixups (IAT with more than 2 sections or a TLS section.) (Exception from HRESULT: 0x80131019) Project : error PRJ0050: Failed to register output. Please ensure you have the appropriate permissions to modify the registry. As the error message says, this error occurs when the EXE file is registered. In native projects, the Register Output linker property is used to register COM servers via the COM registration tool RegSvr32.exe. However, since the EXE file is a .NET assembly, this linker property causes a managed tool called RegAsm.exe to be started instead. RegAsm.exe is a tool that is supposed to register managed types as COM types so that native clients can use these types. To perform the COM registration, RegAsm.exe uses the .NET Reflection API. When it tries to load the mixed-code EXE assembly via Assembly::LoadFrom, it fails, because mixed-code EXE files cannot be loaded dynamically, as discussed earlier in this chapter. This problem can simply be resolved by setting the Register Output linker property to false. When you have successfully rebuilt the project, the generated DLL or EXE file is a mixedcode assembly. This significantly changes the startup and the shutdown. Therefore, you should do some tests with your mixed-code assembly. These tests should be run on a developer machine as well as on typical client machines. These tests should also include execution of some native and some managed code parts. If your application uses COM, you should especially step through the code that performs the COM initialization via CoInitialize, CoInitializeEx, or OleInitialize, because there is a certain chance that COM has been initialized during the initialization of the CLR. If COM initialization in your application s code fails because the CLR has initialized the wrong COM apartment type, you should touch the linker property Configuration Properties Linker Advanced CLR Thread Attribute. If you fear that your existing code might conflict with some services of the CLR, you should do some extra tests. For example, many C++ developers have concerns that the GC could have negative impacts on the responsiveness of the application. To experience the impacts of garbage collection on your code, you can write a few lines of test code that starts a thread to periodically create new managed objects. If this thread is started when the application starts, garbage collections will periodically be done while your native code is executed. Watching or measuring the application s responsiveness can give you useful information. To receive statistics about a running application, the performance monitor shipped with the Windows operating systems (PerfMon.exe) can be used. A performance object called .NET CLR Memory provides various performance counters that are useful for this case. Figure 7-4 shows how you can inspect statistics about .NET garbage collection in PerfMon.exe.
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