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CHAPTER 13 IL INSTRUCTIONS
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unbox.any <token> (0xA5). Introduced in version 2.0 of the CLR, this unboxing instruction is symmetric to the box instruction, because it returns an instance of the value type. mkrefany <token> (0xC6). Take a pointer either managed or unmanaged from the stack, convert it to a typed reference (typedref), and push the typed reference back on the stack. The typed reference is an opaque handle that carries both type information and an instance pointer. The type of the created typedref is specified by <token>, which must be a valid TypeDef, TypeRef, or TypeSpec token. Typically, this instruction is used to create the typedref values to be passed as arguments to methods that expect typedref parameters. These methods split the typed references into type information and instance pointers using the refanytype and refanyval instructions. refanytype <token> (0xFE 0x1D). Take a typed reference from the stack, retrieve the type information, and push the internal type handle on the stack. This instruction has no parameters. refanyval <token> (0xC2). Take a typed reference from the stack, retrieve the instance pointer (& or native int), and push it on the stack. This instruction has one parameter <token>, which must be a valid TypeDef, TypeRef, or TypeSpec token and must match the type of the typed reference or be its ancestor. In other words, the type of the typed reference must be castable to the type specified by <token>; otherwise, the instruction throws an exception. Why do we need to specify the type by <token> when the type is already present in the typed reference Well, the type is indeed present, but we need to specify it explicitly for the sake of the verifier, which performs static analysis of the IL code. Without explicit specification of the type, the result of the refanyval instruction would have whatever type was encoded in the typed reference, unidentifiable in static analysis. And we don t want refanyval instruction to be absolutely unverifiable, now do we ldtoken <token> (0xD0). Convert <token> to an internal handle to be used in calls to the [mscorlib]System.Reflection methods in the .NET Framework class library. The admissible token types are MethodDef, MemberRef, TypeDef, TypeRef, and FieldDef. The handle pushed on the stack is an instance of one of the following value types: [mscorlib]System.RuntimeMethodHandle, [mscorlib]System.RuntimeTypeHandle, or [mscorlib]System.RuntimeFieldHandle. The ILAsm notation requires full specification for classes (value types), methods, and fields used in ldtoken. This instruction is the only IL instruction that is not specific to methods only or fields only, and thus the keyword method or field must be used: ldtoken [mscorlib]System.String ldtoken method instance void [mscorlib]System.Object::.ctor( ) ldtoken field int32 Foo.Bar::ff sizeof <token> (0xFE 0x1C). Load the size in bytes of the value type specified by <token> on the stack. <token> must be a valid TypeDef, TypeRef, or TypeSpec token. This instruction can be applied to the reference types as well, but the usefulness of such an application is questionable: for reference types, sizeof always returns pointer size (4 or 8, depending on the underlying platform).
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CHAPTER 13 IL INSTRUCTIONS
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throw (0x7A). Take the object reference from the stack and throw it as a managed exception. See 14 for details about exception handling. rethrow (0xFE 0x1A). Throw the caught exception again. This instruction can be used exclusively within exception handlers. This instruction does not take anything from the stack. The rethrown exception is whatever was last thrown on the corresponding thread.
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Vector Instructions
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Arrays and vectors are the only true generics implemented in the first release of the common language runtime. Vectors are elementary arrays, with one dimension and a zero lower bound. In signatures, vectors are represented by type ELEMENT_TYPE_SZARRAY, whereas true arrays are represented by ELEMENT_TYPE_ARRAY. The two different array types have different layouts and are for the most part unrelated to each other. We can, of course, declare a single-dimensional, zerolower-bound array (whose ILAsm notation is <type>[0...]), which will be a true array, as opposed to a vector (whose ILAsm notation is <type>[ ]). The IL instruction set defines specific instructions dealing with vectors but not with arrays. To handle array elements and arrays themselves, you need to call the methods of the .NET Framework class [mscorlib]System.Array, from which all arrays are derived. However, don t look in vain among the System.Array s methods to find the most useful ones Get, Set, and Address. These methods are provided by the runtime, and unlike other runtime-provided methods, they are not reflected in the metadata of Mscorlib.dll. The Get method takes N (where N is the rank of the array) arguments (all int32) representing indexes in respective array dimensions and returns the value of the indexed element. The Address method takes the same arguments and returns the managed pointer to the indexed element. The Set method takes N indexes and the element value to be assigned, assigns the specified value to the indexed element, and returns void. Now let s get back to the vectors.
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