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Release the reservation like so: Port.ReservePin(Cpu.Pin.GPIO_Pin1, false); The value of the second parameter indicates whether the pin is to be reserved or released.
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The I C Bus
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I C stands for inter-integrated circuit (say I squared C ). It is used for communication between microcontrollers and hardware modules. I C is a serial bus, and the original system was developed by Philips Semiconductors at the beginning of the 1980s. In 1992, the first specification came out. Today, the I C bus is quasi standard. The I C bus is special in that it only requires two bidirectional wires and that it can access a network of hardware components. Although it is much slower than most other bus systems, I C is ideal for peripheral devices because of its low costs. Also, during operation, components can be added to or removed from the bus, which makes the I C bus useful for pluggable hardware. It is used frequently for volume controls, analog-to-digital or digital-to-analog converters, real-time clocks, small nonvolatile memory, switches, and multiplexers. Many electronic sensors today already have an AD converter for I C built in. Over the first line, called serial data (SDA), the actual data are serially transmitted. The second wire is called serial clock (SCL); it clocks the bus. The original specification provides a maximum bus speed of 100 kilohertz. Per clock cycle, one bit will transfer. With a 100 kilohertz bus speed, 100 kilobits per second will transfer. Since this may no longer be sufficient for today s applications, the specifications were reworked. Each I C module can be selected over a 7-bit address. The eighth bit of the address byte is called the read/write (R/W) bit, and it indicates whether the microcontroller wants to read or write from a module. The data bytes that follow depend on the respective hardware component. Whole bytes will be transferred always, and the most significant bit of a byte is transferred first. Communication takes place between a master and a slave. Several masters are also possible (multimaster mode), but this will not be described here. The master first sends the start condition. After that, all slaves on the bus will listen and compare their own address with the address on the bus that the master requests. Next, the slave with the right address must send an acknowledgment to the master to confirm that it is present and ready. Now, these two devices can exchange data. After each byte, an acknowledgment will be sent, until the communication is completed and the master sends a stop condition. Once the stop condition is sent, the bus is again ready for other communications. Table 5-1 illustrates the sequence of read access to a hardware component.
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Table 5-1. Read Access
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Most significant Least significant bits bits Start condition 0100 XXX 1 Acknowledgment
XXXXXXXX
Stop condition
CHAPTER 5 AC CE SSING HA RDWA RE
Some addresses are reserved to keep the bus extendable. The reserved addresses are listed in Table 5-2.
Table 5-2. Reserved Addresses
Address
0000000 0000001 0000010 0000011 00001XX 11111XX 11110XX
R/W Bit
0 X X X X X X
Reserved For
General calls CBUS devices Another bus format Future extensions Future extensions Future extensions 10-bit addressing
After omitting the reserved addresses, 112 free addresses remain that you can use with the 7-bit addressing. The first four bits depend on the respective component type and cannot be changed. The three bits following it are dependent on the component; that is, you can set a unique address as desired at the module (subaddress). In this way, you can connect eight equal components in a bus. The eighth bit (the R/W bit) in the address byte still indicates whether you want to read or write. Since, over time, more and more I C components were developed, 10-bit addressing was introduced. This permits up to 1024 (210) devices at a bus. Reserving the 11110XX addresses and their R/W bits, means that existing 7-bit modules at the bus will not be disturbed as the standard is extended. Table 5-3 illustrates 10-bit addressing. You can even mix up 7- and 10-bit devices at a bus.
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