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The history of nations and civilizations is rife with examples of the defeat and destruction of one laying the foundation for the birth of another. There was at one time a mighty networking giant, Xerox. Remember the Xerox Networking Service (XNS) protocol suite on which another onetime networking giant s (Novell s) IPX/SPX suite was based Xerox, whose Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) at one time employed Bob Metcalf and David Boggs (the developers of the first experimental Ethernet network in the 1972 1973 time frame!), has been relegated to being a printer and a toner head company by the many newcomers to the computing and networking field: Microsoft, Apple, and Novell being chief among them. The newcomers, one and all, immensely benefited from the fruits of the foundational research that had gone on at PARC, notwithstanding their own subsequent unique contributions to the computing and networking arenas. The Roman poet Virgil in his epic poem, the Aeneid, identifies the Romans as having descended from among the defeated Trojans. Unlike Troy, neither PARC was sacked nor Xerox defeated physically (just outsmarted!) by the computing and networking newcomers of the late 1970s and 1980s. It took the Trojans fleeing their burning city and their subsequent descendents and more than 400 years of wandering (from 1184 to 753 BC) before they finally settled and founded what became Rome, the city of seven hills that eventually expanded into an empire. It took some of the aggressive newcomers less than a decade to start building their empires on the foundations of Xerox research.
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CHAPTER 2 NETWORK ADMINISTRATION AND IT TRENDS THROUGHOUT HISTORY!
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The basis for the seven-layer Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model can also be traced all the way back to Troy, Sam observed with a sense of wonderment. Romulus well understood network troubleshooting and the development of computing architectures at the time of Rome s founding, he continued to ponder. The city was initially founded on just one hill, the Palatine Hill the physical layer of the OSI model. The remaining six hills would get their turn later at becoming a part of the Roman networking architecture. The layered approach to network troubleshooting clearly dates back to the earliest days of Rome! Just as current network problems are not solved instantaneously, neither was Rome built nor did it fall in a day! Sam scanned through the planetary energy states of 1,200+ years during which ancient Rome metamorphosed itself multiple times to eventually become an empire: the entire period from the earliest beginnings of Rome s founding on April 21, 753 BC (a legendary date according to historians still unable to reconstruct the past with accuracy and precision) to the fall of the Western Empire in AD 476. He was struck by the uncanny resemblance between the key epochs in the Roman history (monarchy, republic, and the empire) and the still-unfolding drama of the creation and evolution of the global Internet. The ARPAnet was born when the first four Interface Message Processors (IMPs) were interconnected between the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA), the University of California in Santa Barbara (UCSB), the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and Utah State University (USU), in December 1969. The IMPs were the communication front-ends (router precursors!) to the mainframes and minicomputers resident at the four interconnected institutions. The obscure and now almost legendary ARPAnet lasted as a single network for about 14 years. The most obscure period of the Roman existence, that of its monarchy, lasted a bit longer than the ARPAnet, from 753 to 509 BC, when the Roman Republic was born. The very restrictive (window of 1) Network Control Protocol (NCP) that was operational on the ARPAnet was dethroned in favor of a more flexible and sliding window capable TCP/IP beginning January 1, 1983. Later that year, because of security concerns by the Defense Research Agency, the original ARPAnet was split into two networks: Milnet, which carried nonclassified military information, and a scaled-down ARPAnet, which continued to interconnect the various research centers. The two networks were interconnected into a newly emerging and a revolutionary concept at that time, the Internet. The Roman Republic began its existence in 509 BC with two consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatius, sharing and checking each other s power instead of having a single, and often tyrannical, restrictive monarch. The Roman Republic continued its tumultuous existence for almost five centuries until 27 BC, when the Roman Senate afforded the victorious Octavius the title of Augustus, the consecrated one, elevating him to the status of an emperor and thus bringing the republican era to a close. The transformation of Rome during the republican period affected every aspect of its existence: the form of its government, the laws, and the size of its territory (topology!).
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The governance, the protocols, and the topology of the Internet during the period from 1983 through 1995 underwent equally drastic change. The National Science Foundation (NSF) along with the NSFnet dominated the Internet s topological landscape from 1986 to 1995, not unlike the Roman Senate exerting its influence during the republican period in Rome. However, the balance of power on the Internet was well maintained by the emergence and interconnection of the NSFnet with numerous regional networks (MICHnet, SURAnet, BARRnet, PREPnet, MOREnet, and more). Those were the Roman plebeians keeping the patrician-dominated Senate in check! While no single business entity or institution emerged in 1995 to govern the Internet on the order of the Roman emperors, the geographical breadth and scope of the empire set the pattern for the interconnection of Autonomous Systems (ASs) comprising the modern-day Internet. Among the routing protocols, however, the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) has clearly risen to imperial preeminence, as it facilitates the cohesion among the thousands of ASs that are in turn comprised of tens of thousands of diverse networks scattered across all of the earthly continents. And another type of emperor has also emerged on the Internet since 1995 when the NSFnet was decommissioned in favor of the initial four public Network Access Points (NAPs) for peering between the major ISPs: the emperor of commercialization. The ideals of pure science, research, education, and communication that dominated the republicanera Internet quickly gave way to the goals of using it as a medium to build vast economic empires. Since 1995, the Internet has suffered occasional setbacks: panic about running out of registered IP addresses, the growing size of routing tables in the core routers, and routing instabilities. Not unlike the Roman Empire that also suffered occasional setbacks (the great fire of AD 64, civil wars, and many inept emperors), the Internet has continued to recover from all of those challenges. Private addressing in conjunction with Network Address Translation (NAT) and the development of IPv6 are solving the IP address shortage crisis. Routers have become more powerful and capable of handling hundreds of thousands of routes. BGP s route dampening has put the brakes on route flapping and routing instabilities problems. Sam was optimistic that Internet would not share Rome s ultimate fate the fall! The hacking vandals will not prevail against the Internet like the Vandals prevailed against the once mighty Rome! That s provided that NTP design, development, and deployment remain secure and on track. The ability of the NTP clocks to run backward in order to review the past with precision should be a choice for network administrators rather than a condition that s forced upon them involuntarily. That functionality simply cannot be allowed to be hijacked by the vandal hackers attempting to preempt the ultimate outpicturing of Internet s blueprint. The rebels against the future cannot prevail!
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