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CHAPTER 3 NTP OPERATIONAL, HISTORICAL, AND FUTURISTIC OVERVIEW
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is subject to the undesirable effects of cascading events that are due either to an overt initial occurrence (a security breach, for example) or to the omission of an event that s supposed to initiate a sequence of desirable actions, being able to reconstruct events correctly with respect to time gives an administrator a better chance at implementing effective corrective actions.
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How Does NTP Operate
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The effect of NTP operations on a network is simple and straightforward: accurate time synchronization among the configured devices. The NTP algorithms, however, are quite complex in order to support the seemingly simple end result. Maintaining time synchronization on the network sounds simple in principle. But consider the nature of networking: An internetwork may be composed of numerous routers, switches, and servers from different vendors running different versions of operating systems, even from the same vendor. Thus, NTP implementations must be interoperable across a wide spectrum of vendors, operating systems, and types of computing devices. Multiple WAN links of varying capacities may be introducing varying levels of delays into the network traffic, including the NTP messages. Thus, the NTP algorithm must take into account the very nature of the network on which it operates, including the potential for use of asymmetric paths between the communicating devices. One of the NTP time sources may have been compromised and is communicating the wrong time. If network security cannot be assured through other means, NTP itself must be able to detect the falseticker and also ensure secure time synchronization exchanges in a scalable manner.
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All of the preceding issues and more must out of necessity be considered when designing and enhancing NTP even as separate configuration and operational issues , become relevant during NTP deployment.
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NTP Deployment Concepts
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Every device on the network can potentially participate in NTP exchanges. The manner in which a device participates in NTP will determine its mode of operation. The mode field inside of the NTP message (see the subsequent NTP Messages section) identifies how a device (generically, an NTP host) participates in NTP synchronizations.
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CHAPTER 3 NTP OPERATIONAL, HISTORICAL, AND FUTURISTIC OVERVIEW
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NTP and Routing To facilitate NTP operational scalability and redundancy, network administrators should consider deploying NTP in a manner that logically resembles the network routing model. For example, a single NTP server may be sufficient for a one-subnet network just as a single access router often services single subnets. But, as the number of subnets in an internetwork multiplies, configuring an NTP server on just one subnet and expecting all of the clients from all of the remaining subnets to synchronize with it offers no redundancy and becomes less and less scalable. In complex internetworks, the routing configuration typically follows the logical topology of a distributed hierarchy. Core routers peer with one another and exchange routing updates with a layer of lower-tier routers. As a function of size and throughput requirements, a network may be deployed with multiple layers of lower-tier routers. In that scenario, the NTP logical topology could approximate the logical routing topology with the NTP physical topology approximating the physical distribution of routers. It might be entirely appropriate to configure some of the routers as NTP servers, keeping in mind their anticipated traffic load.
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The Hierarchical Nature of NTP NTP by its very nature, is a hierarchical protocol, with the NTP servers being identified by , a stratum number. The higher the stratum number assigned to an NTP server, the further the server is removed from the primary reference source (a clock that s synchronized with UTC via GPS, CDMA, or a NIST radio station), which conversely means that the lower the stratum number, the closer the server to a primary reference source. Note that the stratum number has nothing to do with physical proximity between the servers or the physical location of the higher stratum servers with respect to the primary reference source. Rather, the stratum number facilitates a logical configuration of the servers that in turn defines and identifies the hierarchical lines of communication between them during the ongoing time synchronization process. However, a stratum 1 server that synchronizes its time with UTC has to be within the physical reach of the UTC transmission mechanism. The NTP servers with the higher stratum numbers synchronize their time with the lower stratum number servers, while a stratum 1 server synchronizes its time with UTC. Stratum 1 servers can be either public or private. More than a hundred public NTP stratum 1 servers are available on the Internet. For more information about those servers, view the URL http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/ntp/clock1b.html. Also, multiple vendors offer stratum 1 servers for installation on private networks. The GPS stratum 1 servers are quite common for private use, given the extensive worldwide coverage offered by GPS. A stratum 1 server that is interfaced into the core of a complex network with the appropriate provisions for redundancy as deemed necessary by the network administrator could be accompanied by one or more layers of higher stratum servers toward the edges of the
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