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CHAPTER 5 NTP DESIGN, CONFIGURATION, AND TROUBLESHOOTING
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the servers can harden somewhat the security of deployments that rely on public servers, but it also lends itself to potential disruptions in the event that the IP addresses of the servers change while their DNS names remain the same. The key to successfully deploying public servers is to be fully aware of all the implications of their use: availability, accuracy, and security. And NTP security should always be considered in the context of the security policy for the entire network.
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A Local NTP Master Device
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When choosing an NTP time source, a designer might also consider the option of using and configuring an existing network device as a local NTP master. A local NTP master relies on a local time source (time determined and set by you), which is not synchronized with UTC. The use of the master feature facilitates time synchronization among the participating devices based on the local time, even if that time is not highly accurate with relation to UTC. A local NTP master could be a router, a switch, or a server that implements the master feature.
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Caution Not all NTP implementations support the master feature.
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Given that the primary purpose of a local NTP master is other than time synchronization, consider the use of the master feature as a no-cost option, similar from a budgetary perspective to the use of public NTP servers available over the Internet.
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Summary of NTP Time Sources Features
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Table 5-1 summarizes the key features (availability, accuracy, security, and cost) of the three categories of NTP time sources: dedicated server, public servers, and local master. Each feature is rated based on one of three values: high, medium, or low. While the features are distinct from one another, there is also a close relationship between them. For example, low security could definitely impact a server s availability and compromise its accuracy. It s not surprising that a dedicated server is a clear winner from a technical point of view. But it also comes at a price. The decision to use one time source vs. another is ultimately a network design decision based on requirements and available budget.
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Table 5-1. Feature Summary of NTP Time Sources Time Source
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Dedicated server Public server(s) Local master
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Availability
High Medium High
Accuracy
High Medium Low
Security
High Low High
Cost
High Low Low
CHAPTER 5 NTP DESIGN, CONFIGURATION, AND TROUBLESHOOTING
Step 2: Deciding Upon NTP Topology at Deployment Site
Following the selection of the NTP time source(s), the next major decision in the NTP design process is to determine the NTP topology at the deployment site. Any decision that involves topology will be driven by the size of the network, specifically the number of clients participating in the NTP exchanges, the need for redundancy in offering the NTP service, and the actual physical layout of the network.
The Number of NTP Clients
One of the challenges with NTP terminology is that the same physical NTP entities wear multiple hats as a function of their interactions with other NTP devices. When considering the number of clients at a deployment site, the word client is used to mean any NTP device at the site other than the primary time source(s), which were discussed in the preceding Step 1: Choosing Your NTP Time Source section. Those clients are bound to include one or more servers that will be synchronizing their time with the primary time sources, in all likelihood one or more of the Internet public servers or pool. In turn, those newly become clients/servers may also peer with one another (be configured at the same stratum level but at a higher one than the primary time source) to facilitate a degree of redundancy, thus giving them a third hat, that of a peer. The simplest NTP topology involves a single NTP server synchronizing the clocks of all other NTP devices. In the case of a private dedicated NTP server that s capable of servicing thousands of clients, the use of a single server approach (without any intervening higherstratum servers to create an NTP hierarchy) may work quite well even for larger networks. Some degree of traffic analysis may be appropriate to ensure that the NTP traffic between the server and all of the other clients will not disrupt regular network operations. The rule-of-thumb formula regarding the relationship between NTP topology and the number of clients is to use point-to-point topology (unicast client/server exchanges) at the top of the NTP hierarchy while relying more on broadcast, multicast, and anycast/ manycast (point-to-multipoint and multipoint-to-point) operations as the hierarchy progresses outward toward the end users. Although dedicated primary timeservers can support thousands of clients, allowing for the flattening of the NTP hierarchy (and topology!), with multipurpose NTP servers (devices such as routers, switches, and servers, whose primary function is not NTP synchronization) it s best to keep the number of clients to a single server at no more than a few hundred.
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