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CHAPTER 5 NTP DESIGN, CONFIGURATION, AND TROUBLESHOOTING
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number, while the secret key can be an alphanumeric string. Multiples of the ntp authentication-key and ntp trusted-key commands are allowed in Cisco configurations to facilitate redundant authenticated servers and/or peers. Listing 5-13 demonstrates the configuration of authentication on Cisco routers. Router1 is a client of Router4. The show ntp associations detail command at the end of the example illustrates that the synchronization exchanges between Router1 (client) and Router4 (NTP server that s configured as the local master ) are authenticated.
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Listing 5-13. NTP Authentication Configuration on a Cisco Router Router1#conf t Enter configuration Router1(config)#ntp Router1(config)#ntp Router1(config)#ntp Router1(config)#ntp Router1(config)#ntp Router1(config)#^Z Router1# Router4#conf t Enter configuration Router4(config)#ntp Router4(config)#ntp Router4(config)#ntp Router4(config)#^Z
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commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. authentication-key 22 md5 Apress_key authenticate trusted-key 22 source serial0 server 172.16.21.1 key 22
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commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. authentication-key 22 md5 Apress_key authenticate trusted-key 22
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Router1#show ntp associations detail 172.16.21.1 configured, authenticated, our_master, sane, valid, stratum 8 ref ID 127.127.7.1, time C745D7EF.B258F1CC (22:40:47.696 UTC Sat Dec 10 2005) our mode client, peer mode server, our poll intvl 64, peer poll intvl 64 root delay 0.00 msec, root disp 0.03, reach 377, sync dist 5.661 delay 9.75 msec, offset -2.7284 msec, dispersion 0.76 precision 2**19, version 3 org time C745D815.02640D80 (22:41:25.009 UTC Sat Dec 10 2005) rcv time C745D815.0456D293 (22:41:25.016 UTC Sat Dec 10 2005) xmt time C745D815.018EACBC (22:41:25.006 UTC Sat Dec 10 2005) filtdelay = 9.75 9.75 9.78 9.83 10.16 9.80 9.83 9.77 filtoffset = -2.73 -2.22 -1.95 -1.37 -1.45 -1.22 -1.42 -2.03 filterror = 0.02 0.99 1.97 2.94 3.92 4.90 5.87 6.85 Router1#
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CHAPTER 5 NTP DESIGN, CONFIGURATION, AND TROUBLESHOOTING
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Redundant NTP Time Sources
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The issue regarding redundant NTP time sources is not so much whether to have them but rather how many of them to have and how to configure redundancy on different types of NTP devices. The concept of redundancy of NTP time sources could be reduced to the following: Redundancy between peers: This redundancy is at the top of the NTP hierarchy and applies to redundant primary timeservers or to secondary timeservers peering with one another after deriving their time from multiple public servers. Figures 5-5 and 5-6 illustrate this redundancy. Redundancy configuration on clients: This redundancy applies along the leaves of the NTP hierarchy and is viewed from each client s perspective.
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The decision regarding how many redundant time sources to deploy and/or configure will be driven by the factors used to determine the type of time sources in use, as choosing the time source(s) is the first and most critical step in the NTP design process. No absolute formulas exist regarding the number of redundant time sources. But there are some basic, commonsense rules of thumb that stem from the principles of network design. If you decide it s worth it to have a dedicated private timeserver, chances are that you place sufficient importance on the issues of time accuracy, time source availability, and security that you should probably consider having at least two of them for redundancy. In installations where there are redundant data centers to facilitate business continuity in the event of major infrastructure failures, consider having NTP redundancy at both centers. With two data centers and two timeservers at each center, the four timeservers could be configured for full-mesh peering (each timeserver would act as a peer to the other three), resulting in each timeserver having three redundant time sources. If you wanted to take this process a step further, then each of the timeservers could also be configured with a backup public stratum 1 timeserver, as well as be equipped and configured with an optional internal oscillator to be used in the event of failure of the primary reference time distribution link, i.e., loss of radio or GPS signals. Figure 5-5 illustrates the concept of redundancy among primary timeservers. For deployments relying on public timeservers, the issue of redundancy is coupled with guarding against the falsetickers. While the redundancy purely from the perspective of the availability of the primary time sources, i.e., the public servers, could well be accommodated with the configuration on the secondary servers of only two or three of the public servers, guarding against falsetickers is best addressed by having somewhere between four and seven public timeservers configured on the secondary (on your LAN) servers. Thus, a redundant NTP deployment that uses Internet public timeservers would have two or three clients (from the perspective of the public servers) that peer with one another (they are the time source to the rest of the clients on the LAN) and are configured
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