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CHAPTER 5 NTP DESIGN, CONFIGURATION, AND TROUBLESHOOTING
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that the NTP management tools are inextricably coupled with the computing platforms on which the service runs, the level of the overall network management that s already in place, and the optional features you ve configured. With a single dedicated timeserver, you will rely on the device management software that s supplied by the vendor with that timeserver. Additionally, the timeserver could be integrated via SNMP into an overall network management scheme that you may already have in place. With a Unix stratum 2 server serving time to your network clients and itself relying on public stratum 1 servers, you will first and foremost want to ensure that the public servers continue to be available. A periodic automated ping (not every ten seconds but maybe once or twice a day), with an alert e-mail if the ping fails, might be in order. Second, you will want to configure your Unix server to possibly collect NTP-related statistics for troubleshooting any specific NTP problems. With a router acting as a local master, use the available router and/or network management software to ensure that the router remains up and if it fails that its time does not default to a weird value of decades in the past. If router logs reflect any configuration changes, verify that NTP configuration has not been altered by mistake. While the preceding sections of this chapter have defined a three-step approach to NTP design and configuration, most of the remainder of this chapter deals with the application of that approach to different size networks. Additionally, the sections consider issues related to networks with or without Internet access, different desktop platforms, and NTP troubleshooting. When you combine the decisions made during the design and configuration steps with the specificity of the available tools on the platforms and in scenarios to which the design/configuration approach has been applied, the result is a unique approach to NTP management that stems directly from this process.
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NTP Deployment on Networks with and without Internet Access
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The choices regarding NTP deployment on networks with or without Internet access are very clear when you begin with step 1 in the approach to NTP design and configuration process, which is choosing your time source(s). Networks with Internet access have the option of using public servers, while networks without Internet access do not. Given the pervasive reach and the availability of Internet service, it might seem silly for any network not to have Internet access. However, security consideration for some networks may be so stringent that any kind of physical connectivity to the Internet is simply not an option, despite the Internet service availability. And even if there is physical connectivity to the Internet via a firewall, NTP packets might have to be blocked from passing onto the internal network as part of an internal security policy. NTP time source choices for networks without Internet access thus include
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CHAPTER 5 NTP DESIGN, CONFIGURATION, AND TROUBLESHOOTING
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Stratum 1 primary timeservers: These could be dedicated timeservers such as Symmetricom s NTS-200 unit shown in Figure 5-1 or multipurpose Unix servers that integrate a primary reference clock. Stratum 2 or higher devices: These are the local masters or impersonators. Routers, switches, and various operating system servers that do not support primary reference clocks, including a Windows 2003 server without any third-party software to turn it into a primary timeserver, could be used in that capacity. That s provided they have the option of being configured as master devices. The net effect of utilizing this option without the presence of dedicated timeservers is that time synchronization throughout the network is possible but without accurate reference to UTC.
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NTP time sources for networks with Internet access include the preceding choices with the additional option of using public servers (stratum 1, stratum 2, or NTP pool servers).
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