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CHAPTER 11 USER MANAGEMENT AND DATABASE SECURITY
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SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hr_context as 2 PROCEDURE select_emp_no IS 3 empnum number; 4 BEGIN 5 SELECT employee_id INTO empnum FROM employees WHERE 6 UPPER(last_name) = 7 sys_context('USERENV', 'SESSION_USER'); 8 dbms_session.set_context('employee_info', 'emp_num', empnum); 9 END select_emp_no; 10* END; SQL> / Package body created. SQL>
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Creating the Application Context
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Once you create the package (HR_CONTEXT) that helps set the application context, you can go ahead and create the application context itself as follows. Note that the hr user uses the package just created in the previous section to create the employee_info application context. SQL> CONNECT system/system_passwd; Connected. SQL> GRANT CREATE ANY CONTEXT TO hr; Grant succeeded. SQL> CONNECT hr/hr; Connected. SQL> CREATE CONTEXT employee_info USING hr.context; Context created. SQL> You can set the application context for a user in two ways. The first is to implement an application context by itself, without fine-grained access control. To do this, you just create an event trigger on a user s logon so the user will invoke the SELECT_EMP_NO procedure belonging to the HR_CONTEXT package upon logging in to the database. Here s how you create the logon trigger to set the initial context for a user: SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER hr.security_context 2 AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE 3 BEGIN 4 hr_context.select_emp_no; 5* END; SQL> / Trigger created. SQL> The preceding logon trigger uses the SELECT_EMP_NO procedure of the HR_CONTEXT package you created to grab the user s employee_id and store it in the emp_num variable. The second way to set or reference an application context is to do so as an integral part of VPD, using a policy function implementing fine-grained access control. The following section discusses this in detail.
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Traditionally, security policies were applied to entire applications. Users were given roles or privileges, based on which they could access the tables in the application. This always left open the possibility of users using tools such as SQL*Plus to go around the application s security protocols
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CHAPTER 11 USER MANAGEMENT AND DATABASE SECURITY
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and modify data in the database tables. Furthermore, application-level security enforcement meant you had to manage a grant/revoke policy for each user in the system for access to all the tables in the database. There are situations where you might want to limit access to an application s data to certain segments of users. Of course, you could create views to such a thing, but managing views poses several problems, such as maintenance and auditing usage. Fine-grained access control (FGAC) enables you to restrict Oracle users so that they can only use the data you want them to access and modify. FGAC is facilitated through the use of policy functions, which you attach to the tables or views you want to secure. It uses dynamically modifiable statements to restrict or limit users to certain portions of a table, view, or synonym. When a user s SQL statements are parsed, FGAC makes Oracle automatically evaluate the policy functions (you can attach more than one policy to a table). Oracle will execute the user s query after dynamically modifying the query if necessary.
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FGAC enables you to implement fine-grained data security. You can enforce a row-level security policy using this feature.
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FGAC involves the following steps: 1. You create a policy function that will dynamically add a predicate to a user s DML statement. A predicate is the WHERE clause based on an operator (=, !=, IS, IS NOT, >, >=, EXIST, BETWEEN, IN, NOT IN, and so on). Here s an example of such a function: cust_no = (SELECT custno FROM orders WHERE custname = SYS_CONTEXT ('USERENV','SESSION_USER')) The package that implements your security policy will dynamically append a predicate to all SELECT statements on the ORDERS table, returning only those orders that pertain to the user s customer number (cust_no). 2. A user enters a statement such as the following: SELECT * FROM orders; 3. Oracle will use the policy function you created to dynamically modify the user s statement. For example, the statement in step 2 would be modified by the policy function in step 1 as follows: SELECT * FROM orders WHERE custno = ( SELECT custno FROM customers WHERE custname = SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV', 'SESSION_USER')) 4. Oracle uses the username returned by SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV', 'SESSION_USER') and executes the modified original query, thus limiting the data returned from the ORDERS table to that customer s data only.
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