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CHAPTER 11 USER MANAGEMENT AND DATABASE SECURITY
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Viewing the Audit Trail
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The DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL view shows you the audit trail (stored in the sys.fga_aud$ table) when you use FGA in your database. It provides fine-grained audit information, such as the timestamp, database user ID, object name, and actual SQL text used in the statement flagged by your FGA policy. Here s an example: SQL> SELECT timestamp, db_user, os_user, object_schema, object_name, sql_text FROM dba_fga_audit_trail; The standard audit trail in Oracle databases is also called DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL and the FGA audit trail is called DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL. If you wish, you can view both types of auditing in the new DBA_COMMON_AUDIT_TRAIL view, which combines both regular and FGA audit trails.
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Always try to keep your audit options to the minimum necessary to meet your auditing objectives. As a DBA, you should keep a close watch on the System tablespace and the SYS.AUD$ table when auditing is turned on. If the SYS.AUD$ table gets full, further connections and DML activity in the database might come to a standstill. You may want to archive and purge the records from the SYS.AUD$ table periodically.
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Authenticating Users
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Database authentication refers to the authentication of the user account and password directly by Oracle. However, although database authentication is easy to set up, it isn t the only or the best means of authenticating Oracle users. You have a choice of several ways of authenticating database users ways that aren t dependent on the database. The following section covers the most common means of Oracle user authentication, which is to authenticate users through the database. After this, I briefly discuss some other means of user authentication external, proxy, and centralized user authentication.
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Database Authentication
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Database authentication is the standard verification of a user s access privileges by using database passwords. If you re relying on the database to authenticate your users, you should have a strong password-management policy. Here s an example of database authentication: SQL> CREATE USER scott IDENTIFIED BY tiger;
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Managing Passwords
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Depending on how you create a database (manually or using the DBCA), Oracle will have several accounts with default passwords. If you create a tablespace manually, you may only have SYS, SYSTEM, DBSNMP (the Oracle Intelligent Agent account), and OUTLN (the username for managing the outlines feature). In some cases, the user scott (owner of the old Oracle demo database schema) is also created with the default password of tiger . A standard database created by the DBCA may have up to 32 default user accounts.
CHAPTER 11 USER MANAGEMENT AND DATABASE SECURITY
As part of securing the database, you must use all the standard password-management techniques, including changing passwords at set intervals, checking passwords for complexity, and preventing reuse of old passwords. Let s see how Oracle creates the default user accounts in a new database. The query in Listing 11-18 lists all the usernames and their status. An account may be open or it may be locked or expired. An open account is one you can log in to, as long as you have a valid password. A locked account must be explicitly unlocked by the DBA. A locked regular account usually results from the user trying to enter the database with an incorrect password more times than the specified limit allows. An expired account is one whose password has to be changed, which ensures that the same passwords aren t used forever. Listing 11-18. Displaying the Account Status of All Users SQL> SELECT username, account_status 2 FROM dba_users; USERNAME ACCOUNT_STATUS ----------------------------------------MGMT_VIEW OPEN SYS OPEN SYSTEM OPEN DBSNMP OPEN SYSMAN OPEN SCOTT OPEN OUTLN EXPIRED & LOCKED HR EXPIRED & LOCKED . . . 32 rows selected SQL> The DBA must change the passwords for all default user accounts immediately after the database has been created. Any unnecessary default accounts must be locked and expired.
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